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Revolutions Europe, America, Industrial, Socialist
Enlightened Thought • What did the philosophes promote? • General and specific • Free thinking • Liberty • Rights that people had but were restricted • Locke promoted… • Liberty, property, and the right to rebel • Rousseau • The Social Contract – people have a deal with the government and if violated they need to change it • Were all writers/thinkers of the Enlightenment anti-monarch? • Enlightened despots • How could this (Enlightened thinkers like L and R) be viewed as revolutionary?
Issues in America • How is America affected by the Enlightenment? • What were the issues that colonists had a problem with? • Taxes • Quartering Acts • Liberties restricted • Thomas Paine Common Sense • Denounces British rule and calls for independence • Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness…
Issues in France • How is France affected by the American Revolution? • What were the issues that citizens had a problem with? • Unfair representation • War Taxes • Crop failures – “Let them eat cake…?” • Declaration of the Rights of Man – Jeffersonian influence • Liberty, property, security, and freedom from oppression” • July 14, 1789 • National Convention – New Assembly of French Republic • Jacobins vs Members of “the Mountain”(Girondists) • Radical vs Conservative Middle Class • Robespierre
Napoleon Bonaparte • General of the French Revolution • Became ruler in 1799 • Consul of the French Republic • Created form of govt. known as Popular Authoritarianism • Emperor of the French Empire (crowns himself ) • 1804 • France becomes most powerful force on mainland • Why don’t they dominate Britain? (big deal later) • Navy… • Eventually controlled most or all of Western and Central mainland of Europe • Eastward Expansion • Napoleon’s force of 600k defeated and returns with 30k • Elba, 100 Days/Waterloo, St. Helena/dead
End of the Napoleonic Empire • Russians feel they are responsible for the defeat of Napoleon • The monarch in Russia was Alexander I • (@ beginning of the 19th century) • Defeated Napoleon with winter and slash and burn • Russians trying to shut out enlightenment ideas that came with France
Congress of Vienna Oct. 1814 – June 1815 • Age of Metternich – Austrian foreign Minister • French Monarchy reestablished with original borders and some lands redistributed to “victors” • Louis XVIII – Louis XVI’s brother ruled as a constitutional monarch • Austria, Russia, Prussia (UK, “France”) • Originally Russia was to get all of the Duchy of Warsaw(Poland) and Prussia was to get all of Saxony • They get most of Poland and 40% of Saxony • “Global” mvmt for democratic reform • US and GB
Congress of Vienna Oct. 1814 – June 1815 • C of V becomes a souring point for French • Urban Workers revolt in 1848 and elect Louis Napoleon • Nephew of NB • Rules as elected president for 3 yrs and then as Emperor Napoleon III • STIFLES NATIONALISM AND DEMOCRACY • Sets stage for future issues
Congress of Vienna • New Nations that emerge • Germany – 300 states of HRE consolidated into 39 • Became a loose German Confederation lead by Pr and Au • Papal States Restored (Italy) • During the C of V, Napoleon returns to France • Why is he not stopped • Treaty of Paris • Never renounced his emperor title
Industrial Revolution • Was it a “Revolution” • Causes • Population Growth • Dependable food supplies & disease resistance • What did this allow? • Larger families… • Leads to a large (child) labor force • Agricultural Revolution • Potato – New Crops • Enclosure Movement – landowners and tenants • Br and E. Eu (Not in places like France; Why?) • Landless farmers move to cities
Industrial Revolution Causes Cont’d • Changes in Trade • Improvements in Transportation: • Road • Railroads • Canals • Shipping • STEAM POWER!!! • Cottage Industries • Offseason • Inventions • Steam Power, Spinning Jenny, Seed Drill, Eli Whitney (IP/CG)
Rise of Socialism • Promoted by… • Karl Marx (1848) • Rejected utopian theories • Urged an attack on private property in the name of equality • Promotes control by whom? • The state • Encourages the end of exploitation under capitalism • Bourgeoisie – Factory Managers • Proletariat – Workers • “Classless society”
Effects • Mechanization • Mass Production • Division of Labor • Inventions • Environmental Change • Pollution • Affordability • What were working conditions like? • Long Hours • Unskilled/Mundane • Who worked there? • Women in factories and servants • Children – beaten, long hours • What is the effect of this?
Who were the movers of the rise of European Industrialism? Russia's Problem No middle class Government promoted Russian Railroad – Nicholas I 1825 – 1855 Industrial Revolution required the promotion of … Education and independent thinking However, most people were SERFS Why were the tsars so afraid? Threat of political instability Spread of Western Ideas What is the significance of 1861? Emancipation of serfs Creates an urban work force Encourages rapid industrialization Beginning of western capital inflow which strengthens the country Russian Industrialism
Feeding the Monsters • Now that European countries have become industrial giants waiting to grow, how is the world effected? • India, Indonesia, AFRICA
19th Century Russia • Russia absolute and conservative • similar to France • people becoming unhappy • no rights • feudal obligation (severe serfdom) • Heavily taxed • Heavily enslaved • Agrarian like France • Intelligentsia • these are the middle class people who will have the enlightened ideas to be progressive (but not necessarily western) • Alexander I • starts off liberal but changes to conservative • He feels that he is owed the most for pushing Napoleon back
Congress of Vienna • Following the defeat of Napoleon • Russia has always wanted land of the Black sea because it is a frost free port • The people in these areas are Slavic as are the Russian and they see themselves as their protectors • Russia gets what they want
Russia after Vienna • Nicolas I • comes to power • Opposed by military and they lead the Decembrist Revolt • What does the monarchy do? • More control • Censorship, no meetings, • Alexander II • Realizes that Russia has fallen behind and everyone else is industrializing(1850) • England was forced to search for an alternate fuel supply • However, Russians have plenty of timber • W. Europe is industrial and Eastern is not industrialized, not much railroads, etc. • Russia offers foreign investment • Sergei Witte pushes for this • Industrialization was fed by a working class that was made of former peasants who worked the land • Alexander II: 1861 frees the Serfs and industrializes (happens simultaneously)