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Ancient Egypt
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  1. Ancient Egypt

  2. Time Line A.D. B.C. 500 500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 3500 270 B.C. Meroitic Period In Kush 2625 B.C. Old Kingdom Begins 1539 B.C. New Kingdom Begins 730 B.C. Nubian Dynasty Rules Egypt

  3. Geography of Northern Africa Vocabulary: A grassy plain with many trees and animals. savanna Low land formed at the mouth of some rivers by the silt the river drops there. delta

  4. A series of rapids and waterfalls. cataracts

  5. The Nile Valley During the Old Stone Age, the Paleolithic period, the area we know today as the Sahara Desert was a savanna. The people living there were hunters and gatherers. Around 5000 B.C., the climate began to change and the Sahara began to dry. Animals left and plants died.

  6. People were not able to survive in the harsh desert and began to move into the Nile River Valley. • TheNile River Valley hasfertile land along each side of the river. • It is the world’s longest river. • The river flows northward for more than 4,000 miles from its main source at Lake Victoria in central Africa.

  7. The river flows to the Mediterranean Sea where the Nile Delta is formed. The land around the river is higher at the beginning of the river and lower near the mouth of the river. The ancient people called the higher land in the south “Upper Egypt.” The land in the north, the delta area, was called “Lower Egypt.”

  8. Lower Egypt was made up mainly of the Nile Delta. • The delta forms a huge triangle at • the mouth of the river. Long ago the • river broke up into many branches, but • today there are only two. • High cliffs surrounded the Nile in Upper Egypt. In some places there was a narrow strip of flat fertile land between the cliffs and the river.

  9. The cliffs are made of limestone and sandstone. • Farther south, in the area once known • as Nubia, the cliffs are made of granite. • The river hasn’t been able to cut a clear • path through the hard granite and runs • through cataracts, a series of rapids • and waterfalls.

  10. Upper and Lower Egypt • Both had rich soil. • The land was perfect for growing crops. • People were able to settle around the • river and farm instead of hunting and • gathering. Sound Familiar ?

  11. Black Land Each year heavy rains in central Africa caused the river to overflow its banks. When the floodwaters drained away, a rich silt remained. The silt was a natural fertilizer. The dark soil was called “Kemet” meaning “black land.”

  12. Black Land The Ancient Egyptians believed their god Hapi caused the yearly flooding. The yearly flooding continued until the Aswan Dam was built in 1972. Now the people use pumps, canals, and chemical fertilizer to keep the land suitable for farming.

  13. Red Land The dry, barren lands of the Sahara were known as “Deshuret,” or the Red Land.

  14. The Nile River cuts the eastern part of the Sahara in two. The land on the west side of the river is called the Western Desert. The land on the east side of the river is called the Arabian Desert.

  15. Farming in the Valley Wealthy landowners controlled almost all of the farmland. Farmers rented and the owners took part of the crop as payment. Typical crops included wheat, barley, onions, lettuce, and beans.

  16. Farmers also raised cattle, goats, sheep, • and pigs for food. • Meat • Milk products – including cheese • Beef – mainly for the wealthy • Most could only afford beef for special days, so they caught fish or used nets to catch geese or ducks.

  17. Plants and animals were important for more than just food. • Fibers of flax plant – used to spin linen thread • Sheep’s wool – woven into cloth • Leather – continers, sacks, shoes • Other plants – sandals, boxes, tabletops

  18. Think Describe the Nile River. Why was the flooding of the Nile River so important to the Egyptians? What is the difference between the Black Land and the Red Land? How might Egypt have developed if the Sahara had not dried and become a desert?

  19. Importance of ... The Nile was know as the giver of life. It united the populous of Egypt into one Nation-State. the Nile River

  20. Vocabulary Nation-state A region with a single government and a united group of people. To be able to tell ahead of time. predict inundation Yearly flood in Ancient Egypt.

  21. Life after death afterlife nome Towns that were capitals of city-states.

  22. Giver and Taker of Life • The Nile River affected all Egyptian • activities. • Farming • Religious Beliefs • Ways of Governing The Nile was called the “Giver of Life” and helped bring the people together.

  23. The Nile became a river highway. • Ancient Egyptians became expert shipbuilders. • The first ships were made of reeds. • Later ships were made of wooden planks,and some were 60 feet long. • Boats going downriver (north) could use the strong current to travel. • Boats going upriver (south) used sails to catch the steady north wind.

  24. Concerns About the Nile • Light rains upriver - no overflow • Land baked in the sun – crops died • Too much rain at river’s source – Wild flooding • Crops washed away • People and animals drowned

  25. Source of Innovation • Common problems helped unite the • Ancient Egyptians. • They were able to predict when the yearly floods (inundation) would come. • To keep track of this event they created a 365 day calendar based on the sun.

  26. Three Seasons The Egyptians divided the year into three seasons based on the river’s actions. Inundation – the start of the new year Emergence – land emerged from beneath the water Harvest – the time when crops were ready

  27. Inundation – The land was made new by the rich silt left by floodwaters. Emergence – Farmers planted using plows or hoes to create furrows. They dropped seeds and led cattle or other animals through the fields to push the seed into the ground.

  28. Harvest – The final season. In most years farmers would have a large crop. Very little rain fell in Egypt. The hot, dry climate was very harsh. The Ancient Egyptians developed irrigation so they could water their crops.

  29. During Emergence they trapped water in ponds to use in case of drought. They also built dams and dikes to hold back the river when there was too much flooding. Canals were built to carry excess water back to the river from the fields.

  30. Source of Religion The Ancient Egyptians believed in many gods and used stories about them to explain events in nature. They believed the sun was a god that was born each day and died each night. They believed religion was important to their survival in the Nile River Valley.

  31. Egyptian gods god of wisdom Thoth Hathor goddess of love ruled over the dead Orisis god of the river Hapi Amon-Re the sun god (most important)

  32. Afterlife The Egyptians prayed to their gods and believed in life after death. A book of prayers called The Book of the Dead was placed in their tombs To be used as a guide in the afterlife.

  33. Unified Egypt About 5000 B.C. small farming villages grew up along the Nile. As populations grew, villages became towns. Some towns became capitals of city- states called nomes. Leaders of nomes competed for wealth and power.

  34. By around 3,500 B.C. the city-states joined together forming two large kingdoms. The kingdoms were known as the “Two Lands.”(Upper Egypt & Lower Egypt) Around 3000 B.C. the Upper Egyptian Kings had gained control of Lower Egypt. Uniting Egypt marked the Beginning of the world’s first nation-state, which lasted for 3,000 years.

  35. Who Really United the Two Kingdoms? No one really knows. Legend says King Menes did. Some experts think King Narmer did because in artwork he is shown wearing a double crown that combines the white crown of Upper Egypt and the red crown of Lower Egypt.

  36. Think Time How did the Nile bring people together? What did the Egyptians do to control the river? How did the Egyptians explain events in nature? Why was uniting Egypt important?

  37. Early Egyptian Rule 3000 Years Over 33 Dynasties

  38. Vocabulary - Lesson 3 dynasty A series of rulers from the same family. pharaoh king Important government official, advisor vizier commands decrees

  39. Vocabulary - Lesson 3 hieroglyphics Ancient system Of writing using over 700 symbols papyrus Paper made from reeds that grew along the Nile. pyramid A burial place for the dead mummy A preserved body

  40. Egypt's Early Period • Egyptians called their kings “pharaoh.” • The word pharaoh means “great house” and referred to the ruler’s palace. • Pharaoh had total authority and was believed to be the son of Re, the sun god. • Pharaoh was believed to be a link between man and the gods.

  41. Why did the Egyptian civilization last so long? • The pharaoh was obeyed without question. • The structure of the government didn’t change. • Viziers carried out the pharaoh’s decrees and took care of running the government. • There were many officials to help govern Egypt.

  42. Officials collected taxes, planned building projects, and enforced laws.

  43. How do we know about the early kings? • Egyptians left written records. • They developed hieroglyphics, a system of writing. • more than 700 symbols • most stood for sounds • some stood for whole words or ideas

  44. Scribes studied for years to learn hieroglyphics. • They also learned math. • A scribe’s job often involved tax collecting and record keeping. • They wrote on stone and on papyrus. • Books were scrolls – rolls of papyrus joined end-to-end. Some were over 100 feet long. • Scribes recorded Egyptian history.

  45. Three Main Divisions of Egyptian History The Old Kingdom 2625 to 2130 B.C. Great achievements in building Intermediate period The Middle Kingdom 1980 to 1630 B.C. Changes in government, trade expanded, changes in society Intermediate period 1539 to 1075 B.C. The New Kingdom First full time army, empire expanded

  46. The Old Kingdom • Dynasties 4- 8 ruled • Pharaohs began to look outside of Egypt for resources • Colony started in Nubia • Traders sent south in Africa to find incense oils, ebony, ivory, & other items • Trade in Asia – cedar wood & silver

  47. Old Kingdom - Age of Pyramids • Largest stone buildings in the world • Built as a burial place for the dead • Pyramids built for rulers and other important people • Egyptians believed they would need their bodies in the afterlife.

  48. Are You My Mummy? • Preserving a body took about 70 days • All internal organs removed except the heart • Organs placed in canopic jars • Heart – believed to be the home of the soul • Body covered with natron –a kind of salt • Natron absorbed the water in the body

  49. Body was rubbed with special oils & wrapped in linen cloth • Everything that a person might need was placed in the tomb with the body.

  50. Where Did My Mummy Go ? The Egyptians believed the soul appeared before the god Osiris and a group of judges. The dead person’s heart was placed on one side of a scale and a feather (the feather of truth) was placed on the other side.