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THE AMERICAN INDIAN CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT

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  1. THE AMERICAN INDIAN CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT A Case Study in Civil Society Protest

  2. CHANGING AMERICAN INDIAN POLICY • Open warfare, followed by treaty-making, beginning in 1778 • Forced removal of Eastern Indians to west of the Mississippi River, the Indian Removal Act of 1830 (the “Trail of Tears”, beginning in 1831) • Confinement to reservations • Economic and cultural assimilation including acculturation at boarding schools and the end of government trust of communal tribal land (individual allotment of land ownership, the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887) • The “Indian New Deal” through the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 • The end of the Federal guardianship of tribal nations through “termination”, 1953 • Urbanization of the Indian population through the Voluntary Relocation Program, 1952

  3. American Indian Population(in thousands) Source: U.S. Census Bureau statistics in First Peoples: A Documentary Survey of American Indian History by Colin G. Calloway, Boston, New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2012

  4. AMERICAN INDIAN URBAN POPULATION (as a percentage of the total Indian population)

  5. UPHEAVAL IN AMERICA • The 1960s and 1970s mark a new era of Indian militancy and “Red Power” • New organisations (National Indian Youth Council, American Indian Movement, Women of All Red Nations) • New leadership (Clyde Warrior, Russell Means, Dennis Banks, Vernon Bellecourt, Ada Deer, Wilma Mankiller) • New tactics (“Fish-ins”, occupations, blockades)

  6. Lumbee Indian war veterans celebrate their dispersal of a Ku Klux Klan rally in North Carolina, 1958

  7. Tuscarora Indians resist the seizure of tribal land for the construction of a dam in New York State, 1958

  8. Nisqually River “Fish-in”, Washington State, mid 1960s

  9. Indian militants occupy the former US prison on Alcatraz Island, San Francisco Bay, November 1969- June 1971

  10. Alcatraz Island Occupation

  11. Benjamin Bratt (Quechua), American actor, Alcatraz occupier

  12. Indian activists come to Washington, DC on their “Trail of Broken Treaties”, autumn, 1972 and occupy the Bureau of Indian Affairs building that November

  13. Indian militants confront US Federal authorities, Wounded Knee, Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota, 1973

  14. American Indian Movement (AIM) leaders, Russell Banks (Ogallala Lakota)and Dennis Means(Anishinaabe), Wounded Knee, 1973

  15. Ada Deer (Menominee), first Native American woman to head the Bureau of Indian Affairs

  16. Wilma Mankiller (Cherokee), first elected female tribal chief, 1987

  17. Seminole Indians celebrate tribal purchase of Hard Rock International, for $965 million, Times Square, New York City, 2006

  18. FURTHER POSSIBILITIES: • Relevant Court Cases: • Worcester vs. Georgia, 1832 • Ex Parte Crow Dog, 1887 • Lone Wolf vs. Hitchcock, 1903 • Oliphant vs. Suquamish, 1978 • United States vs. Lara, 2004

  19. TWENTIETH CENTURY INDIAN TESTIMONY: • “We are Not Free”- Clyde Warrior’s testimony before the President’s National Advisory Commission on Rural Poverty, 1967 • “Proclamation to the Great White Father and All His People”- statement of the Alcatraz occupants calling themselves the “Indians of All Tribes”, 1969 • Mankiller: A Chief and Her People, the autobiography of the late Wilma Mankiller, with Michael Wallis, 1993

  20. COLLECTIONS OF SOURCE MATERIAL • First Peoples: A Documentary Survey of American Indian History by Colin G. Calloway, Boston and New York: Bedford/ St. Martin’s, 2012 • Native American Testimony: A Chronicle of Indian- White Relations from Prophesy to the Present, 1492- 1992 edited by Peter Nabokov, New York: Viking, 1991