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The American Civil Rights movement
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  1. HIST 202 - HESEN The American Civil Rights movement

  2. Early Roots • 19th Century • Jim Crow Laws • Black Codes • 1896 – Plessy v. Ferguson • Early 20th Century • W.E.B du Bois • Booker T. Washington

  3. Civil Rights After WWII • Truman • 1st modern president to challenge discrimination • Committee on Civil Rights (1946) • 1948 – desegregated the Armed Forces • Strengthened the civil rights division in Justice Department

  4. Civil Rights After WWII • Fair Employment Practices Commission • May not hire/fire a person solely based on race • Employers must not profile applicants • Equal wages for equal work • Congress crushed it

  5. Challenging Segregation in Court • NAACP Focus • Schools – since 1909 • Govt. spent 10x more money on white schools • 1938 – Thurgood Marshall • Won 29 out of 32 cases • Chipped away at Plessy v. Ferguson ruling • People began to see the need for desegregated education

  6. Brown v. Board of Education • May 17, 1954 • Linda Brown – 8 years old • Board of Education, Topeka, Kansas • Violated her right to equal education • Elem. School 4 blocks from house – tried to send her to one 21 blocks away • “In public education, segregation has no place”

  7. Reaction to Brown • Mixed reactions • Southern schools • Texas – took the ruling to heart and desegregated schools and public facilities • Georgia – “white kids…white schools”

  8. Resistance to School Segregation • By 1955 – 500 schools desegregated • Baltimore, Wash. DC, St. Louis • 1955 – Brown II • Desegregate NOW! • “All deliberate speed”

  9. Crisis in Little Rock • 1948 – Arkansas • First state to allow black in public universities • No court orders needed • City board hired desegregation council members • People thought that Little Rock was safe…

  10. Crisis in Little Rock • September 1957 • Gov. OrvalFaubus • “Little Rock Nine” • Central High School • Federal judge interceded • Eisenhower sent National Guard in to quell protests • Civil Rights Act of 1957 • Gave attorney general more power over desegregation

  11. Emmitt Till • August 1955 • Emmitt Till • From Chicago – in Mississippi for summer • Talks to a white girl in store • Till was brutally murdered and found in river

  12. The Montgomery Bus Boycott • African American activists • Jo Robinson • Letter to mayor of Montgomery, AL • Asked to desegregate city buses • Mayor refused

  13. Boycotting Segregation • December 1, 1955 • Rosa Parks • Sat at the front of the bus • Parks was arrested • Montgomery Improvement Association • Organized bus boycotts • Martin Luther King Jr. was picked to lead

  14. MLK and the SCLC • Bus boycott proved unity among African Americans • Based on nonviolence • Jesus • Henry David Thoreau • A. Philip Randolph • Mohandas Gandhi

  15. MLK and SCLC • 1957 - founded Southern Christian Leadership Conference • Used church to get message out • Staged nonviolent protests • Hoped to build a solid following

  16. Ole’ Miss • Long-standing tradition of segregation • Clyde Kennard – 1956 • James Meredith – 1962 • Governor Ross Barnett • Response by the government • Bobby Kennedy • U.S. Marshals • U.S. Army

  17. Freedom Rides • Organized by CORE • Mission: GET BLACKS REGISTERED TO VOTE • Anniston, AL – firebombing • Birmingham, AL – Bull Connor • Montgomery, AL – Greyhound Bus Station

  18. Medgar Evers • Freedom Rider • Most influenced by Brown v. BOE and Emmitt Till • Most visible civil rights leader in Mississippi • Shot in the back in his driveway in Jackson, MS - 1963

  19. Grassroots Movements • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) • College students organized SNCC • Challenged the system • Joined with SCLC for civil rights

  20. Nonviolent Method • Sit-ins • SNCC and SCLC members • Sat at segregated lunch counters in cities • Woolworth’s sit in – Greensboro, NC • Showed Americans the horrors of racism • By 1960 – 48 cities had desegregated lunch counters