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Gobierno de Chile: Comisión Nacional de Energía Seminario Evaluación de la Opción Nuclear para Chile Hotel Hyatt, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile; Enero 28, 2010. Nuclear Safety: International Consensus. Abel J. González

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Gobierno de Chile: Comisión Nacional de EnergíaSeminario Evaluación de la Opción Nuclear para ChileHotel Hyatt, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile; Enero 28, 2010

Nuclear Safety: International Consensus

Abel J. González

Representante: Comité de las Naciones Unidas para el Estudio de los Efectos de las Radiaciones Atómicas

Vicepresidente de la Comisión Internacional de Protección Radiológica

Miembro de la Comisión de Estándares de Seguridad del OIEA

Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear de Argentina

Av. Del Libertador 8250; (1429)Buenos Aires,Argentina+54 1163231758;[email protected]

slide2
The International System: consensus on

Radiation Health Effects

Protection Paradigm

Nuclear Safety Regime

Chile within the System

Content

how the international system works

How the international system works?

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile

epistemology of radiation method validity and scope of the scientific knowledge on radiation

Epistemology of radiationMethod, validity and scope of the scientific knowledge on radiation

Radiation Protection Paradigm

Conceptual model for keeping people protected

Global Nuclear Safety Regime

Establishing international safety standards and providing for their global application

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4

slide5
The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemology

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile

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WNU-Ankara 2008

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6

sources
Natural

Cosmic rays

Terrestrial

Inhalation [radon]

Artificial

Medical

Military

Nuclear Power

Occupational

Accidents

Sources
radiation dos e
Radiation Dose

Amount ofradiation energy absorbed by tissue per unit mass

Measured in Sieverts

Radioactivity

(bequerels)

the unit of dose is the sievert sv 0 001 sv 1 millisievert msv
The unit of dose is the Sievert [Sv](0.001 Sv = 1 milliSievert [mSv])

How much is a mSv?

1 radiography = 1 mSv; 1CT = 50 mSv

1 year of natural radiation = 1 – 10 mSv

Releases from NPP <<0.1 mSv

10

slide11
annual dose

mSv/year

Natural Background

~100

~ 10

~ 2.4

~ 1

Few people

In few areas 

VERY HIGH

Many people

In many areas 

TYPICALLY HIGH

Majority of people

around the world 

AVERAGE

MINIMUM

slide14
Computerized tomography (CT)

procedures by year (millions)

Annual growth > 10%/yr

U.S. population < 1%/yr

slide20
Man-made sources

Natural sources

global average levels
Global average levels

Source: UNSCEAR 2000 Report

in summary medical uses rather than nuclear power is responsible of increased radiation levels

In summary:Medical uses rather than nuclear power is responsible of increased radiation levels

what are the health effects attribuatble to radiation exposure

What are the health effects attribuatble to radiation exposure?

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile

overall unscear conclusion

Overall UNSCEAR conclusion

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile

slide28
Limit of

epidemiological

knowledge

Limit of

pathological

knowledge

Likelihood

of

radiation

effects

Certainty

(100%)

Deterministic

effects

Stochastic

effects

Burns, sickness & death

Biology

Inference

Epidemiology

Statistical estimation:

populations

Pathology

Clinical diagnosis:

individuals

Increasing risk of cancer

5%

~1000

Dose (mSv)

~100

Radiation

protection region

28

slide29
Plausibility of stochastic effects, p

average 2.4 mSv

typical 10 mSv

high 100 mSv

Radiation

protection region

increment ofp

risk

factor

Background incidence

increment ofD

Dose, D

backgroundannual dose

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slide30
Likelihood of Health Effect

Certainty

(100%)

epidemiology

pathology

Dose (mSv)

Risk

estimation

Collective

attribution

Individual

attribution

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the international protection paradigm

The International Protection Paradigm

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile

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31

the international commission on radiological protection icrp deals with the paradigm
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) deals with the paradigm

32

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2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile

icrp basic principles
ICRP Basic Principles

Justification of any endeavor or action that entails a change in the level of radiation exposure.

Optimizationof radiation protection and safety.

Restriction of individual doses attributable to a given situation and also of the probability of incurring doses.

33

slide35
Teleological

(consequence)

Utilitarian

(utility)

Deontological

(duty)

Doctrines

on

Ethics

Areatic

(virtue)

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Teleological

Mind the ends, which

justify the means

Utilitarian

Do the greatest good

for the greatest

number of people

Deontological

Not do unto

others what they

should not do

unto you

Ethical

Aphorisms

Areatic

be virtuous, wise

and prudent,

aim at humanity

slide37
Justification

of Actions

Optimization

of Protection

Individual

Restrictions

Protection

Principles

Prudence

(commitment

&

environment)

slide38
Justification

=

Teleology

Optimization

=

Utility

Limitation

=

Deontology

Ethics

of

Protection

Prudence

=

Areatic

teleology justification
The ends or consequences of a protective action should determine its morality, namely whether such act is good or evil

Any decision that alters the radiation exposure situation should do more good than harm

Teleology & Justification
utility optimization
The morality of protective actions should be judged against its contribution to the overall utility, namely to the best welfare among all people.

The level of radiation protection should be the best under the prevailing circumstances, maximizing the margin of benefit over harm.

Utility & Optimization
deontology individual protection
The morality of protection should be judged by the goodness or rightness caused by the protective actions on specific individuals, and not only by their overall consequences or utility.

Inequitable protection options should be prevented by restricting individual doses (dose limits, constraints and reference levels)

Deontology & Individual Protection
areatism precaution
The focal point for judging the moral of protective actions should be their virtuosity rather than their consequences, utility or duty.

Protection should be provided to both, present and future generations and their environment, against scientifically plausible radiation harm even if it is uncertain.

Areatism & Precaution
  • The focal point for judging the moral of protective actions should be their virtuosity and not only their consequences, utility or duty.
slide43
Justification

=

Teleology

Optimization

=

Utility

Limitation

=

Deontology

Ethics

of

Protection

Prudence

=

Areatic

ethical matrix
Ethical Matrix

Done

Being done

objectives of radiation protection of the environment
Objectives of radiation protection of the environment
  • to maintain biological diversity,
  • to ensure the conservation of species, and
  • to protect the health and status of natural habitats, communities, and ecosystems
slide46
ICRP Recommendations

Published by Elsivier

Volume 37, Issue 1-3, 2008

2008 Recommendations of

the International Commission on Radiological Protection

the international nuclear safety regime

The International Nuclear Safety Regime

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile

the international atomic energy agency iaea is responsible for the global regime
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is responsible for the global regime

48

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2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile

slide49

The IAEA is the only organ within the UN system with specific statutory responsibilities on radiation protection and safety

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile

iaea functions
IAEA Functions
  • Verifying Peaceful Uses
  • Developing & Transferring Technology
  • Providing for Protection and Safety

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile

the nobel peace prize 2005

The Nobel Peace Prize2005

“For their efforts

[i] to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and

[ii] to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way“

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile

slide52
IAEA statutory safety functions

to provide for their application

to establishstandards

to service international conventions

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile

slide57
Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management
international radiation safety standards

International Radiation Safety Standards

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile

slide60
IAEA Board of Governors

Commission

on Safety Standards

(CSS)

Nuclear Safety Standards

Committee

(NUSSC)

Transport Safety Standards

Committee

(TRANSSC)

Radiation Safety Standards

Committee

(RASSC)

Waste Safety Standards

Committee

(WASSC)

Expert Groups

Expert Groups

Expert Groups

Expert Groups

safety standards hierarchy
Safety Fundamentals

Safety Requirements

Safety Guides

Safety Standards Hierarchy

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile

slide65
providing TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE

Provisions for the application of the standards: IAEA mechanisms

fostering INFORMATION EXCHANGE

promoting EDUCATION & TRAINING

coordinating RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

rendering APPRAISAL SERVICES

chile the international nuclear safety regime

Chile&the International Nuclear Safety Regime

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile

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66

full engagement of chile
Full engagement of Chile
  • Chile is a contracting party of the safety conventions.
  • Chile participate in the development of international safety standards
  • Chile can make use of appraisal services of the IAEA to check that it is applying correctly international safety standards
full engagement of cchen
Full engagement of CCHEN
  • From April 16, 1964, i.e. over nearly half a century, the Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear (CCHEN) has assisted the Government in all affairs related with nuclear energy.
  • It has a solid, long-standing, professional experience in nuclear issues
organization the issue of independence
Organization(the issue of ‘independence’)
  • ‘Independence” is not referred to by the Convention, which indicates that Governments:
    • “shall establish or designate a regulatory body…provided with adequate authority, competence and financial and human resources…”
    • “shall take the appropriate steps to ensure an effective separation between the functions of the regulatory body and those of any other body or organization concerned with the promotion or utilization of nuclear energy.”

The only real ‘independence’ is provided by knowledge!

free downloadable references
Free-downloadable References
  • UNSCEAR documents (2000, 2001 & 2006 reports)http://www.unscear.org/unscear/en/publications/2000_1, http://www.unscear.org/unscear/en/publications/2000_2, http://www.unscear.org/unscear/en/publications/2001, http://www.unscear.org/unscear/en/publications/2006_1.html, http://www.unscear.org/unscear/en/publications/2006_2.html
  • IAEA Safety Fundamentals http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1273_web.pdf
  • IAEA Basic Safety Standards http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1273_web.pdf
  • IAEA Safety Glossary http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1290_web.pdf
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Av. del Libertador 8250

Buenos Aires

Argentina

+541163231758

Thank you!

[email protected]

WNU, Daejon, July 2009

20 August, 2014

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