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Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management Republic of Slovenia 3 r d Review Meeting Vienna, May 200 9 PRESENTATION OVERVIEW Introduction – Basic information on the Slovenian Nuclear Programme

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Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management

Republic of Slovenia

3rd Review Meeting

Vienna, May 2009

presentation overview
  • Introduction – Basic information on the Slovenian Nuclear Programme
  • Brief presentation of the National Report
  • Conclusions
  • General response to questions

Introduction – Slovenian Nuclear Programme

  • Brief presentation of the National Report
  • Conclusions
  • General response to questions
summary of basic information

LILW repository - operational in 2013

On site storage and ultimate geological disposal – 50 years

On site wet storage at NPP

Dry storage, then disposal or export

Decommissioning Fund

(Levy from kWh)

LILW repository - operational in 2013

Decommissioning Fund

(Levy from kWh)

On site storage

Central Interim Storage for Radioactive Waste, then transfer to LILW repository

LILW repository - operational in 2013

Users and state

Central Interim Storage for Radioactive waste

LILW repository - operational in 2013

Decommissioning Fund

(Levy from kWh)

Central Interim Storage for Radioactive Waste then transfer to LILW repository

LILW repository - operational in 2013 or with high level waste

Users and state

Central Interim Storage for Radioactive Waste

Summary of basic information


Long Term Management Policy


Current Practice / Facilities

Planned Facilities

Spent Fuel

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Waste

Application Wastes

Decommiss-ioning Liabilities

Disused Sealed Sources

the kr ko npp
The Krško NPP
  • Major producer of radioactive waste in Slovenia
    • PWR two loops Westinghouse design
    • 700 MWe
    • 24th fuel cycle
    • Joint project of Slovenia and Croatia
    • Start of the construction: 1974
    • First criticality and connection to the grid: 1981
    • Commercial operation: 1983
    • Design life time 40 years, probably extended
the kr ko npp7
The Krško NPP
  • All LILW radioactive waste and spent fuel stored within the plant area, capacities nearly exhausted
  • Spent nuclear fuel stored in the spent fuel pool, re-racked in 2003, sufficient until end of design life time and beyond
triga mark ii research reactor
TRIGA Mark II Research Reactor
  • Part of Jožef Stefan Institute Reactor Centre
    • 250 kWt General Atomic open pool type,
    • Start in 1966,
    • In 1991 re-licensed for pulse mode operation
    • Shall terminate the operation in 2016
  • No spent fuel on site (return of spent fuel to U.S. in 1999)
  • Minor amount of LILW
  • Hot laboratory as an integral part since early 2008 (licensed for treatment of RW from small producers)
the central interim storage for radioactive waste in brinje
The Central Interim Storage for Radioactive Waste in Brinje
  • Storage of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research applications
  • Constructed in 1984,
  • Operational since 1986
  • Refurbished in 2004
  • Two and a half years of trial operation
  • Operating license in early 2008
irovski vrh uranium mine
Žirovski Vrh Uranium Mine
  • Operation from 1984 to 1990,
  • Lifetime production 610,000 tons,
  • 452.5 tons U3O8 equivalent of yellow cake
  • In 1990 the decision to close
  • Mine and Mill decommissioned
  • Mine waste pile remediation completed
  • Mill tailings remediated
government al organizations
Governmental Organizations
  • Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (1987)
  • Slovenian Radiation Protection Administration (2003)
  • Agency for Radwaste Management (1991)
  • Public Enterprise Žirovski vrh Mine (1992)
  • Fund for the decommissioning of the Krško NPP (1995)
governmental policy
Governmental Policy
  • Resolution on the National Energy Programme
  • Resolution on the National Programme for Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel Management (2006-2015)
  • Agreement between Slovenia and Croatia on Krško NPP
  • Decommissioning Plan for the Krško NPP

Introduction – Slovenian Nuclear Programme

  • Brief presentation of the National Report
  • Conclusions
  • General response to questions
issues raised at the 2 nd review meeting
Issues raised at the 2nd Review Meeting
  • Implementation of Agreement with Croatia
    • Proceeding
  • Siting, design and licensing of the LILW repository
    • Public acceptance pending
  • Continue to seek solution to geological disposal
    • Continuing
  • Characterisation of waste in Central Interim Storage Facility
    • Completed
  • Hot cell refurbishment
    • Completed and licensed
  • Uranium Mine – waste pile final remediation
    • Completed
main novelties since the 2 st report
Main Novelties since the 2st Report
  • Characterisation of historical waste stored in CISF completed
  • Central Interim Storage for Radioactive Waste licensed
  • Hot Cell Laboratory licensed
  • Licence for remediation work at Boršt waste pile (upgrading mill and mine tailings safety)
  • Progress in siting of LILW repository
  • The Decommissioning Plan is under revision
  • 10 fresh fuel elements and 500kg of yellow cake sold to AREVA
spent fuel management policy
Spent Fuel Management Policy

NPP Krško

  • Dry storage for SF:
    • construction 2024 - 2037
    • operation 2037 – 2070
  • Looking for regional or global solutions
  • Disposal of SF in Slovenia
    • beginning of site characterization 2035
    • beginning of construction 2055
  • After storage period disposal in Slovenia or export
spent fuel management policy17
Spent Fuel Management Policy

Research Reactor

  • Stop operating in 2016,
  • Return SF to U.S. by 2019
spent fuel management practices kr ko npp
Spent Fuel Management Practices - Krško NPP
  • Spent fuel pool for 1694 fuel assemblies, made of reinforced concrete, covered with SS liner, leak detection system
  • Water purification system, < 18.4 x104 Bq/cm3
  • Criticality analysis design basis criterion, keff+3< 0.95
  • Average burn-up 45.9 GWd/MTU
  • Re-racked in 2003
spent fuel management practices research reactor
Spent Fuel Management Practices – Research Reactor
  • Two spent fuel pools, both empty
  • Newer spent fuel pool is operational with capacity of 195 spent fuel elements
  • Made of reinforced concrete, covered with SS liner, on-line water radioactivity monitoring
radioactive waste management policy
Radioactive Waste Management Policy
  • Responsibility for LILW management:
    • Producers,
    • State-owned public service (ARAO)
  • According to 2002 Act
    • Site for LILW repository - approved by 2008
    • Repository - operational 2013
raw management practices the central interim storage for radwaste
RAW Management Practices – The Central Interim Storage for Radwaste
  • Operational since 1986, first operator Institute J. Stefan
  • Transferred to Agency for Radwaste Management in 1999
  • “Polluter pays” principle since 2000
  • Refurbishment finished in 2004
  • Beginning of trial operation in 2005
  • Operating license in early 2008
raw management practices irovski vrh uranium mine
RAW Management Practices – Žirovski Vrh Uranium Mine
  • Two permanent waste disposal sites:
    • Jazbec mine waste pile (SAR approved,

remediation completed)

    • Boršt mill tailings site (SAR approved)
  • Underground mine closed
  • Ore processing plant decommissioned
  • Contaminated waste materials from decommissioning disposed on Jazbec mine waste pile
  • Geomechanical stability problem of Boršt mill tailings addressed in SAR
raw management practices kr ko npp
RAW Management Practices – Krško NPP
  • Radioactive Waste Management Programme
  • Radioactive Waste Committee at Krško NPP
  • Radioactive waste treatment and conditioning: gaseous, liquid and solid radioactive waste processing systems
  • Radioactive waste volume reduction programme:
    • Two super compaction campaigns,
    • Four incineration and melting campaigns
    • In-Drum Drying System
    • Installation of supercompactor on site
    • 18-month fuel cycle
  • PSR accomplished in 2004 => waste storage operation is appropriately addressed
raw management practices small producers
RAW Management Practices – Small Producers
  • Jožef Stefan Institute:
    • Solid radwaste transferred to

Central Interim Storage for Radwaste

  • Industry and Research:
    • ~90 different organisations,
    • 800 sealed radioactive sources,
    • Spent and disused sources shipped to Central Interim Storage for Radwaste
  • Medicine:
    • 7 hospitals,
    • Decay storage tanks at Institute of Oncology,
    • Short lived radioactive waste stored at users’ locations,
    • After decay transferred to the municipal disposal site
inventories and lists
Inventories and Lists

Krško NPP

  • Spent fuel
    • 872 assemblies
    • 18-months fuel cycle (since 2004)
  • LILW
    • 3,685 drums, 2,174 m3, 1.93x10+13 Bq
  • Other
    • 2 steam generators and other bulky items
inventories and lists28
Inventories and Lists

Research Reactor TRIGA Mark II

  • Spent fuel
    • All returned to U.S. in 1999, with option to return the rest by 2019
  • Other waste
    • Various items, mainly contaminated laboratory equipment and tools (annual discharge rate ~1 m3 ) are transferred to Central interim storage facility
inventories and lists29
Inventories and Lists

Žirovski Vrh Uranium Mine

  • Jazbec Mine Waste Pile
    • Total 1,198,800 m3 (mine waste, red mud, filter cake from mine water treatment station, soil and ruins from uranium ore processing plant)
    • Total activity of disposed material 21.7 TBq
  • Boršt Mill Tailings
    • Total 409,000 m3 (mine waste, mill tailings)
    • Total activity of storage material 48.8 TBq
inventories and lists30
Inventories and Lists

Central Interim Storage for Radioactive Waste

  • Status at the end of 2007:
    • 305 drums
    • 210 special bulky items
    • 333 spent sealed sources (60Co, 137Cs, 85Kr, 90Sr)
    • Total activity app. 3,600 GBq
  • Status at the end of 2008 (after characterisation)
    • 345 drums
    • 31 special bulky items
    • 82 spent sealed sources (60Co, 137Cs, 85Kr, 90Sr)
    • Total activity app. 3,650 GBq
inventories and lists31
Inventories and Lists

Isotopic Laboratory of the Institute of Oncology

  • LLW is packed in 60 l barrels - decay storage
  • Sealed sources (Co, Ir, Ra) - Central Interim Storage
  • Liquid radioactive waste (faecal sludge) is collected in decay storage tanks and released into the hospital sewage system after about half a year
legislative and regulatory framework
Legislative and Regulatory Framework

Safety of spent fuel and radioactive waste management:

  • Act on Ionising Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety - “2002 Act” - basic requirements
  • Detailed safety requirements in regulation’’On management of radioactive waste and spent fuel’’ (JV7), adopted in May 2006
regulatory body
Regulatory Body

Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA)

  • Established in 1987
  • Director of the SNSA
    • appointed and released by the Government
    • responsible to the Minister
    • SNSA is represented on the Governmental and Parliamentary level by the Minister
  • Staff
    • interdisciplinary
    • 46 employees (including director)
  • In 2007 acquired the ISO 9001:2000 certificate for the management system
human and financial resources
Human and Financial Resources

NPP Krško

  • Responsibilities:
    • Radioactive waste => Chemistry Department,
    • Spent fuel => Nuclear Fuel Department,
    • Radiological control => Radiation Protection Department
  • 573 employees (at the end of 2007), 8 directly involved in RAW management
  • Expenses for radioactive waste and spent fuel are part of production costs
  • Development of a Site Specific Decommissioning Plan for NPP Krško to assess financial resources
  • Fund for decommissioning and final disposal of radioactive waste and spent fuel is independent from the NPP
human and financial resources36
Human and Financial Resources

JSI Reactor Infrastructure Centre

  • Reactor operational staff responsible for spent fuel and radioactive waste handling and managing. Budget 200,000 EUR per year. Financial provisions for decommissioning are not assured yet.
  • Staff of 11

Agency for Radwaste Management

  • Staff of 24
  • State budget, Decommissioning Fund for the Krško NPP, fees for storage and future disposal of radioactive waste
operational radiation protection
Operational Radiation Protection

Occupational Exposure due to RW Management

* due to radiation practices and RWM

operational radiation protection38
Operational Radiation Protection

Estimated effective dose for population


No nuclear facility under decommissioning(excluding the remediation of the Žirovski vrh Uranium Mine)

  • Site Specific Decommissioning Plan for Krško NPP, levy per produced kWhe paid to the Fund is 0.3 Eurocents
  • Research project to estimate quantity and composition of LILW resulting of dismantling of TRIGA Mark II
  • Decommissioning of Žirovski vrh is assured by Slovenian Government
siting of proposed facilities
Siting of Proposed Facilities
  • LILW repository should become operational by the year 2013, site known by 2008.
  • Two main criteria:
    • Safe disposal solution, supported by the safety assessment
    • Site selection performed in agreement with local community
  • Licensing process:
    • Environmental Impact Assessment is mandatory for spent fuel management facilities and radioactive waste management facilities
    • Safety Analysis Report is the key document
siting of proposed facilities41
Siting of Proposed Facilities
  • Public Involvement:
    • invitation to local communities, 8 responded, 3 withdrawn,
    • 12 potentially suitable sites in 5 local communities,
    • 3 locations in 3 communities were approved for further field investigation, 1 withdrawn
    • 2 local partnerships were established
    • The spatial planning procedure for the potential location Vrbina in Krško started in 2006, waiting for consent of the local council
    • The spatial planning procedure for the potential location Brežice started in 2007, in process
siting of proposed facilities cntd
Siting of Proposed Facilities (cntd’)

NPP Krško

Vrbina-Krško municipality

Sava River

Vrbina- Brežice municipality

siting of proposed facilities cntd43
Siting of Proposed Facilities (cntd’)

Design basis for the LILW repository

  • Three variants considered on the potential location Vrbina in Krško municipality
    • Surface type
    • Tunnel type
    • Near Surface silos
  • Proposal: Silo type of LILW repository
    • Structures used for operating stage placed on embankment, later removed
    • Structure placed 15 to 50 m beneath the surface
    • Lays in saturated soil, separated from fresh water, covered by 5m thick clay layer
    • Silos structure: 33 m high and 26 m in diameter
    • Capacity: 700 concrete containers in 10 levels

Silos structure in operating time: vertical and horizontal cross section.

disposal of spent fuel
Disposal of Spent Fuel

Krško NPP:

  • Plans for repository
    • beginning of site characterisation 2035 (identify sites)
    • beginning of construction 2055 (propose the site)
    • beginning of disposal 2065
  • Export option also considered
disposal of spent fuel45
Disposal of Spent Fuel

Research Reactor:

  • Decision on termination of operation in 2016
    • Shipment and permanent disposal of spent fuel within the framework of the U.S. government programme
transboundary movement
Transboundary Movement
  • Council Directive 2006/117/EURATOM of November 2006 has been adopted
  • In 2005 transit of irradiated nuclear fuel from Austria via Slovenia to Port of Koper
  • In October 2005 shipment from the Krško NPP for incineration and melting, returned in December 2006
  • In December 2008 shipment from the Krško NPP sent for incineration and melting
  • In 2008 three transits of nuclear fuel from Italy, Romania and Hungary via Slovenia to Port of Koper
disused sealed sources
Disused Sealed Sources
  • Storage:
    • Central Interim Storage
    • “Polluter pays’’ principle
  • Re-manufacturing and re-entry
    • No manufacturing of sealed sources in Slovenia
  • Successful campaign in the faculties and state institutions
  • HASS Directive has been adopted
  • Effective System for Prevention of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials in Shipments of Metal Scrap
    • In force since January 1, 2008

Introduction – Slovenian Nuclear Programme

  • The Republic of Slovenia - a party to the Joint Convention
  • Brief presentation of the National Report
  • Conclusions
  • General response to questions
  • Amount of radwaste in Slovenia is relatively small, but magnitude of problems is similar as in countries with big nuclear programmes
  • Current situation is well under control
  • Slovenia respects provisions of Joint Convention
  • LILW repository siting, construction and operation
  • Agreement with Croatia about common solution for Krško NPP waste disposal
  • Updated Krško NPP Decommissioning plan

Introduction – Slovenian Nuclear Programme

  • The Republic of Slovenia - a party to the Joint Convention
  • Brief presentation of the National Report
  • Conclusions
  • General response to questions
general response to questions
General response to questions
  • 57 questions from 11 countries addressed
    • Regulatory authority
    • Decommissioning of the Krško NPP
    • Strategy for spent fuel disposal
    • Central interim storage
    • Planned repository for LILW
    • Žirovski vrh Uranium Mine
    • Spent fuel in Krško NPP
    • Discharges to the environment
    • Clearance levels
    • Disused sealed sources
    • Treatment and storage of RAW in Krško NPP
regulatory authority
Regulatory Authority
  • Two competent authorities (SNSA and SRPA) reporting to different ministries, independent in administrative decisions
    • medical institutions, using radioactive sources are legal persons, financed through the Health Insurance of Slovenia (The Ministry of Health is not a user of radioactive sources)
  • Cooperation between SNSA and SRPA
    • No problem!
  • Authorisation of authorised experts (TSOs for nuclear safety are authorised by SNSA; TSOs for radiation protection are authorised by SRPA)
regulatory authority54
Regulatory Authority
  • SNSA management system
    • Documented in five levels of management documentation
    • Seven core processes and two supporting processes
    • Regular communication with stakeholders/clients
    • The SNSA clients: licensees, authorised organizations, ministries, public and other organizations, non governmental organizations
    • Surveys on customer’ and employee’s satisfaction
decommissioning of the kr ko npp
Decommissioning of the Krško NPP
  • Decommissioning of NPP Krško, disposal of RW and SF is joint responsibility of contracting parties (SLO-CRO Agreement)
  • Decommissioning Plan, approved in March 2005, is being revised
  • Parties shall assure financial resources for decommissioning and for disposal of RW and SF
  • One year after entry into force each party should establish its own decommissioning fund (both Funds established)
  • If agreed on joint solution parties shall finance it in equal shares or they shall finance their share of activities by themselves
  • In Slovenia the levy per kWh is 0.3 Euro cents (higher in Croatia)
  • The levy shall be re-assessed on the basis of revised Decommissioning Plan (2009)
decommissioning of the kr ko npp56
Decommissioning of the Krško NPP
  • So far no agreement on joint solution, Slovenia is developing RW management plan only for its share of waste.
  • Volume of decommissioning waste assessed, conditional clearance => effective dose 10 Sv and collective dose 1 man Sv must be justified for each individual case
  • Strategy: immediate dismantling (2023 to 2037) - 7 scenario options analyzed
  • Next update of The National Programme for Managing RW and SF in 2015, meanwhile the global development is monitored
strategy for spent fuel disposal
Strategy for spent fuel disposal
  • Decommissioning programme:
    • NPP shut down in 2024, however extension probable
    • Transfer of spent fuel to dry storage 2024-2030 (storage period 35 years)
    • No detailed plans for dry storage facility at the moment
  • Strategy for Long-Term Spent Fuel Management:
    • Repository in deep geological formation assured in 2065, closed in 2075 (waiting for establishment of optimal disposal technology, multinational solutions also considered)
    • Export (no bilateral agreement or negotiations yet)
    • For cost assessment Swedish concept was taken as a reference model
  • Eventual other HLW (Am, Ra, highly active sources not met the WAC for LILW Repository) shall be disposed off in geological repository
central interim storage
Central Interim Storage
  • Refurbishment:
    • Transfer of responsibility for operation from JSI to ARAO in 1999
    • Main safety problems: obsolete installations, poor data on inventory, lack of procedures, no safety analysis report
    • Refurbishment prepared (ventilation system, floor drain system, physical and fire protection, air drying system, minor other remediation and maintenanceworks)
    • Waste packages approved by regulator (limitation: 2 mSv/h on contact)
  • Licensing:
    • Trial operation in 2005,
    • After trial period, safety analysis report was updated
    • Operational license issued in 2008, max. 10 years
  • Projected service life:
    • In case of LILW repository => decontaminated or decommissioned
    • In case of no new solution => continue to operate
central interim storage59
Central Interim Storage
  • Inventory characterisation of RAW
    • All historical waste categorized and repacked
    • Liquid waste exceeding WAC identified and prepared for treatment (must be treated by the end of 2009)
    • Radioactive waste inventory database updated
    • No other safety measures needed
planned repository for lilw
Planned repository for LILW
  • Time frame:
    • Site approval envisaged for 2008 is delayed into 2009
    • Operation from 2013 till 2037
    • 5-year closure period until 2042
  • The site has not been approved yet, hopefully this month
  • Decision to abandon the second suitable location is pending
planned repository for lilw61
Planned repository for LILW
  • Financial compensation to municipalities:
    • 2.3 mio EUR/year (10 % during field investigations)
  • Public involvement:
    • Two public hearings (2004 and 2008)
    • Establishment of local partnership (Brežice and Krško)
    • Activities: visits to CISF, public discussions, independent expert studies
    • Municipality has to confirm the proposal of the National Spatial Plan for LILW repository
    • Proposed site selection can’t be vetoed, once confirmed by municipal council
planned repository for lilw62
Planned repository for LILW
  • Proposal: silo type repository
  • Draft WAC for disposal prepared for a silo type repository (anticipated)
  • Dose constraint 300 Sv per year (individual from a critical group) in compliance with ICRP recommendations (normal evolution scenario, normal degradation of the repository)
  • 12 scenarios for abnormal events treated in SSAR
planned repository for lilw63
Planned repository for LILW
  • Consultations with neighbouring countries (trans-boundary impacts)
    • The process of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) according to SEA Directive started for potential locations (Vrbina in the Krško municipality and Vrbina in the Brežice municipality)
      • If the SEA Report will show trans-boundary impacts , Slovenia will involve neighbouring countries in the process of trans-boundary consultations
    • The process of the Environmental Impact Assessment according to the EIA Directive has not been started yet
irovski vrh uranium mine64
Žirovski vrh uranium mine
  • Underground mine permanently closed, outflow of the mine waters is under control
  • Processing plant decommissioned;land is given to local municipality for unlimited use
  • Jazbec mining waste disposal site, remediation completed
    • Covered with 2.2 m thick soil layers,
    • Background and seepage waters drained
    • Site re-cultivated with grass and fenced
  • Boršt mill taillings disposal site
    • Remediation work to be completed by 2010
irovski vrh uranium mine65
Žirovski vrh uranium mine
  • Closing requirements
    • Safety cases approved through the licensing process
    • Limits for liquid effluents and seepage water are set
    • Limits for radon exhalation rate are set for both disposal sites, 0.7 Bq/m2/sand 0.1 Bq/m2/srespectively
    • External radiation limit set to 0.2 Gy/h
    • Total effective dose limit 0.3 mSv/year
  • Measurement of discharges
    • Operational period: TSOs and analytical laboratory of the Žirovski vrh Uranium Mine
    • Decommissioning: TSOs
    • Annual reporting to the SNSA
    • Programme on environmental radioactivity (off-site) measurements by SNSA
treatment and storage of raw in the npp kr ko
Treatment and storage of RAW in the NPP Krško
  • Storage safety requirements
    • No release of radioactive substances,
    • Package integrity assured,
    • Corrosion resistant,
    • Installation of new air condition system planned
    • Administrative restrictions: external exposure 0.2 mSv/year at the fence of the plant
  • Storage capacity
    • 1470 m2, capacity 2000 m3, 5000 drums
    • Storage space still sufficient due to waste treatments (incineration, melting, supercompaction), Installation of steel construction (two levels of storage), bridge crane => 11200 drums
    • 95% filled in 2010,
    • Increase of storage capacity not planned
treatment and storage of raw in the npp kr ko67
Treatment and storage of RAW in the NPP Krško
  • Conditioning of evaporator concentrate and spent resins
    • Original method: solidification with vermiculite
    • To minimize the quantity of solid waste => In-Drum-Drying System
    • Acceptance criteria for the final product: solid block with no free liquid, less than 30 wt. % of moisture content
    • Additional studies performed by operator, License for processing issued by SNSA
    • No swelling of waste form expected, type of packages (SS drums) corrosion resistant at least 40 years
    • Prevention againstthe self ignition: in the phase of development of the process, sorting of the waste to be treated, Room with IDDS equipped with fire protection sensors
treatment and storage of raw in the npp kr ko68
Treatment and storage of RAW in the NPP Krško
  • Solid RAW:
    • Not conditioned or ready for disposal
    • The integrity of packages regularly checked
  • Spent ion exchange resins from the secondary circuit – treated as Non-Nuclear Waste
  • Spent ion exchange resins from the primary circuit:
    • Solidification by vermiculate-cement and since 1998 in-drum drying system
  • Quantification of radionuclide content of the treated solid waste – with drum scanner (for 208 l drums); scaling factors for minor radionuclide assessment are used
spent fuel in the npp kr ko
Spent Fuel in the NPP Krško
  • Burn-up of spent fuel
    • No plan to introduce nuclear fuel with the enrichment of 235U higher than 5 wt% (handling not possible in the current storage facility)
discharges to the environment
Discharges to the environment

Krško NPP

  • Limits for radioactive effluents for the NPP set during the licensing process (Technical Specification)
  • Limits for liquid discharges to Sava River set in Operational license and TS
  • Two operational limits for liquid discharges are changed
    • Total activity of fission and activation radionuclides, including noble gases, excluding H-3 =>100 GBq/y
    • Total activity of H-3 => 45 TBq/y

Planned LILW

  • Limits not established yet
discharges to the environment71
Discharges to the environment

Discharges of 131I from Department for Nuclear Medicine

  • Estimated from the administered activities to patients
  • Releases limited by
    • Activity allowed in individual patients (1100 MBq) and
    • Number of patients (max. 6 per week hospitalized)
  • In average patients excrete app. 50% of 131I => the activity concentration of discharged water does not exceed prescribed limits
clearance levels
Clearance levels
  • Specific activity bellow clearance levels => release without approval (just notification to regulatory body), upon the decision of regulatory body additional measurements may be carried out before release
  • Surface contamination (limits defined in Bq per 100 cm2) for:
    • Surface in controlled area
    • Unrestricted area
    • Surface of soil
    • Equipment and tool contamination
    • Surface of protective clothing and skin contamination
disused sealed sources73
Disused sealed sources
  • Transport of radioactive sources inside Slovenia
    • Licensing for transport under special arrangements and packages for which multilateral approval is mandatory
  • The scrap dealers recognized the benefit of orphan sources detection (detection capabilities improved, better commercial contracts with suppliers) and do not comply about costs