AP World History: The Islamic Golden Age. Period Two: 600 CE – 1450 CE. NY Standards 2 Common Core R.S. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, WS 1, 2. I Age of Conquest. Muhammad died in 632 CE. Islam spread from the Arabian peninsula to North Africa and Spain. II Islam Divides.
Period Two: 600 CE – 1450 CE
NY Standards 2
Common Core R.S. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, WS 1, 2
Muhammad died in 632 CE. Islam spread from the Arabian peninsula to North Africa and Spain.
A) Muslims couldn’t agree who should be the caliph (Muslim leader). This was the cause of a division within Islam.
B) Shiites believe caliphs have to be descended from Muhammad’s daughter Fatima and her husband Ali.
C) Sunnis believe any worthy man can be caliph.
D) Sufis developed separately from Shiites and Sunnis. Through meditation they try to have a spiritual connection to Allah.
Whirling dervishes twirl, often for hours, as an act of ecstatic devotion.
C) Islamic architects built beautiful mosques, featuring domes and minarets.
D) Architects also built palaces for the caliphs and royalty that served both as a residence and a fortress.
One of the most famous works of Islamic literature is The Thousand and One Nights, author unknown.
The Plot: King Shahryar’s wife is unfaithful to him. He has her killed. Then, loathing all women, he marries and kills a new wife each day afterward. Shahrazad, a daughter of the King’s vizier, insists on marrying him so to end his terror. She begins to tell the king a tale, leaving it incomplete at the end of the night…which she continues to do until she has given birth to his children, when he finally abandons his plan.
The merchant cleared his throat and started to narrate the story of Aladdin. He said, " Once upon a time there lived a poor tailor who had a son named Aladdin. Aladdin used to play games the entire day and would do nothing helpful for his parents. When Aladdin behaved this way, it made his father go down deep in sorrow and depression. This resulted in his death. Even after this incident, Aladdin did not change himself and kept on teasing his mother.
One day, a stranger met Aladdin on the road and thought he recognized him. He asked Aladdin, " Are you the son of Adam?" Aladdin said that he was. Then he told Aladdin, "Go home and tell your mother that I'm Adam’s brother. I'm coming to visit your home." Later, when he came to their home Aladdin's mother quickly prepared a good meal and had a conversation with him after they finished eating. Mustafa was quiet curious about their situation. On learning that Aladdin’s father was dead, he hugged Aladdin and asked Aladdin's mother if Aladdin was doing any work. Aladdin's mother replied in the negative and started crying at the spot. Aladdin's uncle said, "I am going to open a merchant store and I can assign Aladdin to run and manage it." The next day, he joined Aladdin to take a round of whole city.
Mustafa, who came in the disguise of Aladdin's uncle, was a magician in fact. Mustafa took Aladdin out of the city and gave him a cake to eat in a garden outside the city gates. As Aladdin was eating the cake, he felt tired and asked his uncle not to go any further. Mustafa agreed because he was going to ask Aladdin to stop walking. Aladdin burnt some wooden sticks for fire. At the same instant, his uncle suddenly threw some powder, the earth trembled and a cave opened up. That made Aladdin very scared.
Aladdin refused to enter the opened cave. His so-called uncle started beating him for his refusal and forced him to enter the cave. When Aladdin entered the cave, he found a unique lamp. He wiped the lamp trying to clean it from the dust. As soon as he stopped rubbing, the lamp tumbled from his hands onto the ground and thick black smoke started to appear out of it. Aladdin was watching the smoke in shock. Soon, Aladdin realized that the smoke was taking the shape of a massive monster. The Genie inside the lamp said, "My lord, I am here to make your wish true. Ask whatever you want." This Genie actually would appear whenever someone rubbed the lamp and asked for any wishes. The Genie helped Aladdin get out of that cave as his wish. When Aladdin arrived home safely, he narrated the entire event to his mother, but she refused to trust his story.
One day, Aladdin heard the news that a princess would pass through the market and then go to the palace for a bath. Every time Aladdin would try to look at her, he failed. However, one day he got a chance to see her after much effort, and immediately fell in love with her. He felt that his lucky days had come finally. Without wasting any time, Aladdin rushed back home, and told his mother. Instead of encouraging him to chase his dream wife, his mother made fun of him.
However, after a few days she realized the intensity of his love, so she decided to ask help from the Genie of the lamp to make the princess impressed by Aladdin and marry him. Aladdin and his mother made the Genie bring them exotic fruits for the princess and her father, the Sultan, and build them a beautiful palace to match the beauty of the princess and present her with exotic gifts to show the sincere love of Aladdin. Princess Jasmine was impressed by the kindness of Aladdin's mother and the devotion of Aladdin. Aladdin also managed to persuade the Princess's father by supporting his army. The princess eventually fell in love with Aladdin and married him. They lived happily ever after."
A) Muslim scholars translated Greek, Roman, and Hindu texts, preserving them. *Recall that this was before the invention of the printing press of the internet!
B) Muslims spread the Hindu number system (Arabic numerals) to Europe
C) Al-Khwārizmī invented algebra
D) Built astronomical observatories
Persian Telescope, 13th century
E) While medieval European doctors used leeches to bleed their patients for almost every illness, Muslim doctors were performing cataracts surgery and providing small pox vaccinations!
F) IbnSinawrote the Canon on Medicine; an encyclopedia of all medical knowledge.
On the morrow he rode with me and we reached Malaqa [Malaga], which is one of the largest and most beautiful towns of Andalusia. It unites the conveniences of both sea and land, and is abundantly supplied with foodstuffs and fruits. I saw grapes being sold in its bazaars at the rate of eight pounds for a small dirham, and its ruby-colouredMurcian pomegranates have no equal in the world. As for figs and almonds, they are exported from Malaqa and its outlying districts to the lands both of the East and the West. At Malaqa there is manufactured excellent gilded pottery, which is exported thence to the most distant lands. Its mosque covers a large area and has a reputation for sanctity; the court of the mosque is of unequalled beauty, and contains exceptionally tall orange trees.
[IbnBattuta arrives in Granada, Spain] Thence [from Malaga] I went to on the city of Gharnata [Granada], the metropolis of Andalusia and the bride of its cities. Its environs have not their equal in any country in the world. They extend for the space of forty miles, and are traversed by the celebrated river of Shannil [Xenil] and many other streams. Around it on every side are orchards, gardens, flowery meads, noble buildings, and vineyards. One of the most beautiful places there is "Ayn ad-dama" [the Fountain of Tears], which is a hill covered with gardens and orchards and has no parallel in any other country.
The king of Gharnata at the time of my visit was Sultan Abu'l-Hajjaj Yusuf. I did not meet him on account of an illness from which he was suffering, but the noble, pious, and virtuous woman, his mother, sent me some gold dinars, of which I made good use. I met at Gharnata a number of its distinguished scholars and the principal Shaykh, who is also the superior of the Sufi orders. I spent some days with him in his hermitage outside Gharnata. He showed me the greatest honour and went with me to visit the hospice, famed for its sanctity, known as the Outpost of al-Uqab [the Eagle]. Al-Uqab is a hill overlooking the environs of Gharnita, about eight miles from the city and close by the ruined city of al-Bira.
There is also at Gharnita a company of Persian darwishes [dervishes], who have made their homes there because of its resemblance to their native lands. One is from Samarqand [Samarkand], another from Tabriz, a third from Quniya [Konia], one from Khurasan, two from India, and so on.