Discourse Analysis Presentation Group One
Outline 1.Discourse Analysis of Extract No. 1 • Cohesion • Coherence • Culture • Critique • Context 2. Extra activities
1. Analysis of Abstract No. 1 • Cohesion grammatical cohesion lexical cohesion • Coherence macrostructure microstructure • Culture • Critique • Context
Cohesion Grammatical Cohesion • Ellipsis • Reference Reference chains • Substitution • Conjunction
No. 1 My first experience of different cultures came when I went to live in Lyon, France. I spoke reasonable French, but what I especially liked about France was that people kiss you a lot. In Lyon, they kiss you twice, once on each cheek. This was a new experience for a young Englishman and I quite enjoyed it. But one day I went to Paris. I greeted myfriend, a Parisian woman, and we kissed on both cheeks. But on this occasion, I had the feeling that somehow, she wanted more....And indeed, in Paris, people kiss each other four times! Now,this lead me to wonder ... if it’s twice in Lyonand four times in Paris, what happens in Dijon, mid-way between the two cities. Is itthree times? And what about Lille in the north? Is itsix times? This subject of research aroused my interest and took me the length and breadth of France. My findings came to no conclusion, butI had a geat time!
Lexical Cohesion • Repetition • Synonyms • Collocations • Meronyms
No. 1 My first experience of different cultures came when I went to live in Lyon, France. I spoke reasonable French, but what Iespeciallyliked about France was that people kiss you a lot. In Lyon, they kiss you twice, once on each cheek. This was a new experience for a young Englishman and Iquiteenjoyed it. But one day I went to Paris. I greeted my friend, a Parisian woman, and we kissed on both cheeks. But on this occasion, I had the feeling that somehow, she wanted more.... And indeed, in Paris, people kiss each other four times! Now, this lead me to wonder ... if it’s twice in Lyon and four times in Paris, what happens in Dijon, mid-way between the two cities. Is it three times? And what aboutLille in the north? Is it six times? This subject of research aroused my interest and took me the length and breadth ofFrance. My findings came to no conclusion, but Ihad a geat time!
Coherence • Macro-structure • Microstructure
Macrostructure • Generalization My first experience of different cultures came when I went to live in Lyon, France. • Specifics 1. In Lyon, they kiss you twice, once on each cheek. 2. And indeed, in Paris, people kiss each other four times!
Microstructure • Chronological order when Iwent to live in Lyon.... But one day I went to Paris.... • Space order Lyon Paris Dijon Lille
Critique • This piece of narration is told in the first person with “I” repeated through the passage. This gives a consistent point of view. “I” is assumed to be an English young man, brought up in the European culture where kissing between people is a common way of greeting. He just takes it for granted and enjoys that as well, although he finds the number of kisses exchanged may vary from country to country, from region to region. However, what he expresses in the end after he obtains his findings is that differences are not that important. What matters most is the comfortable feeling this manner brings to people.
How many kisses? • It depends on the region, so observe the people around you and follow suit. In the southern city of Toulouse, for example, two kisses is the norm, while in some Parisian suburbs you’ll be expected to give four and in the agricultural departement of Aveyron it’s three.
Context • How to Kiss Hello in France Despite the amorous reputation of the French, there’s nothing romantic implied. “Kissing means only that you are in a certain circumstance, it doesn’t mean you have a special relationship,” Toulouse native Eric Viala, 34, explains. • How to kiss: The French air kiss - ala “Mmmmwah, dahling” - is more of a stereotype than an actuality. Still, you’ll want to avoid planting your lips firmly on anyone’s cheeks unless you know the person quite well. • In general, gently touching your cheek to your recipient’s while pursing your lips and making a kissing sound does the trick. There’s no rule as to which cheek should get the initial kiss, but people often start the kissing to the right. The occasional embarrassing moment—when you’re forced to change your trajectory halfway through to avoid wayward lips—is inevitable.
Who to kiss: Among the 20- and 30-something generation it’s pretty much expected to kiss hello, even when meeting friends of friends for the first time. • Who not to kiss: When greeting elderly people for the first time it isn’t always appropriate to faire la bise and you can avoid a potentially embarrassing situation by simply shaking hands. French women faire la bise with other women and between the sexes, but if you see two men kissing one another hello or goodbye it usually means that they are very close friends or haven’t seen each other for some time. As a rule, foreign men should stick to handshakes when forming relationships with French men and go with the flow as the relationship grows. • When to kiss everybody: At New Year’s parties the kisses flow like vin rouge in France, with everyone getting in on the cheek swapping. Depending on the size of the soiree you attend, your head will be spinning from more than just the champagne when you bid adieu. • When to have a sense of humor: As a foreigner, there’s a fair chance the French people you meet will proffer a hand instead of a cheek as many are aware that other cultures don’t necessarily faire la bise. “One time, after being introduced as an Australian, I got in position to be kissed but it didn’t happen,” said Jane Elliot, 29, with a laugh. As in all unfamiliar situations, awkward moments come with the territory when traveling abroad, but the French are an understanding bunch and as long as you take your cue from what’s happening around you, you’re sure to make an enlightened impression.
2. Extra activity • Purpose Let Ss get more familiar with the passage and raise their awareness of culture difference • form oral activity
Procedure • Warm-up question • Pair work • Group discussion • Presentation • Feedback • Assignment
1. Warm-up question How do people greet each other in China or in other countries? 2. Pair work Ask Ss to work in pairs, assigning respectively one paragraph with same questions. Who is the speaker? What does he experience? Ask them to ask each other questions.
3. group discussion • 4. presentation Divide the Ss into group of four and ask them to talk about the topic on and then give presentation of 5 minutes after the discussion. If you were the young man, how would you cope with culture differences in the future?
5. Feedback Give comment on the Ss’ presentations 6. Assignment Ask Ss to read the text after the class and do the exercises on the textbook.