Introduction • Jazz represents a merging and melding of many different peoples and their heritages. During the 1800s in America's south, music was an integral part of the life of plantation slaves of African descent. Plantation songs, spirituals, and field hollers were a part of everyday life -- to celebrate, to mourn, to entertain, to commemorate, to worship, and to accompany the drudgery of work. This music of the plantations blended with the European-American musical tradition to create the basis for blues, ragtime, and other musical forms from which jazz evolved. • The origin of the word “JAZZ”, which was first used to refer to music in about 1915, are uncertain
Origin • By 1808 the Atlantic slave trade bought almost half a million Africans to the United States, mostly to the East-Side New York. • The slaves largely came from West Africa brought strong tribal musical traditions with them
Construction in Jazz • STANDARDS Trio = piano & double bass & drums. Duet = piano, double bass & wind-instrument. Solo = musician & his instrument. Quartet = trio & 1 wind-instrument. Quintet = trio & 2 wind-instruments. Sextet = trio & 3 wind-instruments. Group = trio & wind-instruments & guitar.
Jazz Instruments • PIANO The piano is a keyboard instrument distinguished by the unique set of keys that players press. The player can sound a large number of notes simultaneously and vary their loudness by changing the force with which the keys are struck. A jazz pianist can provide harmony , melody, and rhythm .
Jazz Instruments • DRUMS Congas An Afro-Cuban drum with a tapered or barrel-shaped shell of as much as 90 cm in height and a single head of 25 to 30 cm in diameter. The jazz the conga is played with the fingers and the hollow palm of the hand and is generally used alone or in pairs: when more than one drum is used the instruments are of different pitches.
Jazz Instruments • DRUMS Drum Set The drum set is a term used to describe the basic equipment of the jazz drummer, usually a combination of percussion instruments including bass drum, snare drum, ton-tons, and cymbals.
Jazz Instruments • DRUMS Timbales Are Latin American drums which are played in pairs. Timbales have shallow metal bodies supported on a central rod. a plastic skin is stretched very tightly over the drum head. Timbales are normally played with thin sticks and have a metallic, clanging tone. A wide variety of pitches and tone colors can be produced by striking the rim, head, or shell.
Jazz Instruments • DRUMS Vibraphone Is a tuned percussion instrument consisting of a set of metal bars arranged like a piano keyboard. Each bar is suspended over a tube resonator containing a revolving vane or metal disc. A foot-controlled sustaining device works like the sustaining pedal of the piano
Jazz Instruments • GUITAR Most all jazz players today use an electric guitar not an acoustic guitar, which does not have integral electrical components. The two main kinds of electric guitar are the hollow bodied (electric-acoustic) and the solid-bodied. • BANJO Is a plucked string instrument with a long guitar-like neck that was used in both blues and ragitme ortinted jazz.
Jazz Instruments • BASS The bass instruments are those instruments playing the lowest part in the musical system. The most common instruments are the acoustic (double) bass (four strings), and electric bass (guitar, also 4 strings) and in early dixieland jazz, the sousaphone. Bass players most commonly support the harmony but can also play melodically in solos.
Jazz Time Line 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 Ragtime Dixieland Bebop Free Jazz The Blues Cool Jazz Fusion Big Band: Early Boom Postwar to Present Latin Jazz (Afro-Cuban and Brazilian Jazz)
Ragtime: 1890s – 1910s • Emancipation of slaves led to new opportunities for education of freedom African-American, but strict segregation meant limited employment opportunities. • Black musicians provided “low-class” entertainment at dances and minstrel shows, and many marching bands formed. • Black pianist played in bars, clubs and brothels. • Scott Joplin wrote Maple Leaf Rag.
New Orleans Music • In New Orleans, many early jazz performers played in the brothels and bars of red-light district around Basin Street called Story Ville. • Many marching Bands played at funerals arranged by the African Americans Community. • Afro-Creole pianist Jelly Role composed “Jelly Role Blues” around 1905, that was published in 1915 as the first Jazz arrangement in print, introducing more musicians to New Orleans style.
Dixieland: 1917 – 1920s • Blues and Ragtime, came together in the late teens to early 1920s in New Orleans, Louisiana to create a new type of music called Dixieland Jazz or New Orleans Jazz. • As Jazz gained popularity, it spread north from New Orleans to Chicago, New York, Kansas City, and across the Midwest to California.
Dixieland: 1917 – 1920s • Dixieland is usually performed without a vocalist. The music was characterized by a steady, often upbeat. This is known as “two beat style” and gives music a sound similar to ragtime. • Dixieland Jazz greats included trumpets Louis Armstrong , pianist Jelly Roll Morton, trumpeter Bix Beiderbecke, trombonist Edward “Kid” Ory, clarinetist Sidney Bechet and bandleader and trumpeter King Oliver.
Big Band Music: Early 1920s – 1930s • Following the rise of Dixieland jazz in 1920s was a new style performed by a large ensemble usually consisting of 10 players or more. These bands were called “big bands”. • The overall instrumentation was broken into three groups of instruments: brass (trumpets and trombones), reed (saxes, with players sometimes doubling on clarinet), and rhythm section (piano, bass, drums, guitar and in later years, vibes).
Big Band Music: Early 1920s – 1930s • The music performed by big bands was called swing, a type of music that people could dance to easily. • Key figures in developing the “big” jazz band were bandleaders and arrangers such as Count Basie, Cab Calloway, Fletcher Henderson, Earl Hines and Duke Ellington. • Later Glemm Miller´s song left less space for improvisation. • As Swing was also a dance music it was broadcasted om the radio “live” coast-to-coast nightly across America for many years.
Big Band Music: Early 1920s – 1930s • Prohibition in the United States (from 1920 to 1933) banned the sale of alcoholic drinks, resulting in illicit speakeasies becoming lively venues of the "Jazz Age", an era when popular music included current dance songs, novelty songs, and show tunes. • Jazz started to get a reputation as being immoral and many members of the older generations saw it as threatening the old values in culture
Big Band Boom: 1930´s – 1940´s • Big Band music continued to grow in popularity during the 1930´s and 40´s • Musicians played together in jam sessions after hours at bars and clubs • Radio Broadcasts spread interest in big band music bringing it into people's homes. • During the big band boom, leaders and musicians were as idolized as rock stars are today. • Some of the famous jazz musicians: Glenn Miller, Woody Herman, Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Billy Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald, Frank Sinatra , Joe Williams and Bing Crosby.
Greatest Latin Jazz Artist • Dizzy Gillespie (Afro Cubop) • Stan Getz (Bossa Nova) • Joao Gilberto (Bossa Nova) • Chano Pozo (Afro Cubop) • Arturo Sandoval (Afro Cubop) • Antonio Carlos Jobim (Bossa Nova) • Chico O'Farrill (Afro Cubop) • Poncho Sanchez (All-Around) • Machito (Afro Cubop) • Tito Puente (Afro Cubop)