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The History of Jazz

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  1. The History of Jazz America’s original art form

  2. Jazz Music • Originated in the 1920’s in New Orleans • Characterized by blue notes, syncopation, swing, call and response, and improvisation • Picture is of Bourbon Street in New Orleans

  3. Origins of jazz • West African Folk Music • European Classical Form and Harmonies • New Orleans Marching Bands • The Blues • Influences of other styles of modern music

  4. Jazz Instruments

  5. Styles ( Eras) Of Jazz Music • 1880’s to 1910 • 1910-1920 • 1920-1945 • 1943-1952 • 1955-1969 • 1970-1986 • 1987-present

  6. 1897 Harlem Rag 1899 Maple Leaf Rag 1902 The Entertainer 1906 Frog Leg’s Rag 1919 Bohemia Rag Tom Turpin Scott Joplin James Scott Joseph Lamb Ragtime Music

  7. 1897 starts the influence of Ragtime Ragtime predated the availability of sound recordings so its popularity was by word of mouth. Was distributed by sheet music With industrialization, railroad construction its popularity quickly spread Piano rolls and player pianos play an important role with ragtime music Ragtime Music

  8. Invention of the phonograph helped spread ragtime music and helped the music industry Stride piano is an important aspect of Ragtime music that had a direct influence on modern music today Primarily written for piano but towards the mid 1910’s, some songs were arranged for different ensembles thus leading the way into Dixieland music Ragtime Music

  9. Cakewalk-popular in 1904, music is intended to represent of dance contests where the prize is a cake Two-Step-Popular in 1911, dance craze that was popular in the early 1900’s Ragtime Song- version of ragtime music that was influential to Irving Berlin, American composer, influential in early Hollywood and Broadway Styles of Ragtime Music

  10. Classic Rag- Style made popular by Scot Joplin, main style of ragtime music Fox-Trot- dance style started in 1913, became popular in 1920’s Stride Piano- emerged after WW1 fast paced moving bass line, direct influence on early Rock & Roll Styles of Ragtime Music

  11. Ragtime Revivals • 1950’s better recording devices were invented so older songs were recorded on record and published causing a revival in popularity • 1970’s- Joshua Rifkin recorded a series of Scott Joplin music and won a Grammy, re-introduced Joplin’s music to the public • New York Public Library released a 2 volume set of Scott Joplin music which introduced a new audience to his music • 1974- the movie The Sting staring Robert Redford and Paul Newman used Scott Joplin songs as its theme songs.

  12. Scott Joplin • Father Of Ragtime • 1899 Maple Leaf Rag • Most Famous Ragtime Song • 1902 The Entertainer

  13. Best known ragtime musician and composer Father of Ragtime music 1891-Part of a minstrel troupe 1895 started selling his music Worked as a pianist in Maple Leaf and Black 400 gentlemen clubs 1899 Sold his most famous piece Maple Leaf Rag to John Stark Boosted his popularity and made ragtime famous Treemonisha- opera based on ragtime music Scott Joplin

  14. Named after a bar Joplin worked at in Sedalia Missouri ragtime's biggest hit The success of the Maple Leaf Rag sparked a nationwide ragtime craze. 1899 Publication of the Maple Leaf Rag becomes a nationwide best-seller 1903 The first recording of Maple Leaf Rag is made, in Minneapolis The Maple Leaf Rag

  15. 1902 The Entertainer Featured in the 1973 movie the sting featuring Paul Newman and Robert Redford Helped to launch a ragtime revival which increased the popularity of ragtime music Song influenced John Williams to write the cantina song in Star Wars The Entertainer

  16. Joseph Lamb • Influential Composer • 1908 Met Joplin • 1908 Sensation • 1919 Bohemia Rag

  17. White influential ragtime musician and composer Self taught musician Big fan and influenced by Joplin 1908- New York, was purchasing Scott Joplin music in record store when he met Scott Joplin Introduced to John Stark Lambs music was published for the next decade 1908- Sensation 1914- Cleopatra Nightingale 1919 Bohemia Rag When popularity of Ragtime faded, decided to work as an accountant 1950’s revival had him come out of retirement and start performing again Joseph Lamb

  18. James Scott • 1902 worked for Charles Dumars and met Joplin • 1903 A summer Breeze • 1906 Frog Legs Rag

  19. One of the big three composers of ragtime music Born in Neosho Missouri 1902 worked in music store of Charles Dumars as menial labor Showed musical ability so Dumars published his music A Summer Breeze in 1903 1906 moved to St. Louis Met Scott Joplin and John Stark 1906 Frog Legs Rag 1914 moved to Kansas City Married, taught music, directed theater orchestra Talking movies began so he lost his first fortune. Wife died, bad health Continued to compose until Starks retirement in 1922 James Scott

  20. Tom Turpin • Father of St. Louis Ragtime • 1896 Harlem Rag • First Politically Powerful African Americans in St. Louis

  21. Ragtime composer and businessman Opened saloon in St. Louis which became a meeting place for musicians First African American to publish a ragtime song “Harlem Rag” in 1897 Other famous song was St. Louis Rag Owned several businesses in St. Louis, theater, saloons, gambling houses Was a deputy sheriff and one of the first politically powerful African Americans in St. Louis. His influence on local music earned him the nickname Father of St. Louis Ragtime. Tom Turpin

  22. Was the publisher of the most famous ragtime composition from the 1900’s-1920’s Money he earned by publishing Maple Leaf Rag enabled him to increase his publishing company Moved from Sedalia Missouri to St. Louis and finally to New York He and Scott Joplin moved together One of the first music Promoters and Advertisers persistently challenged the musical (and racial) prejudices that prevented true ragtime from receiving its due. Competed against Tin Pan Alley Producers John Starks

  23. Tin Pan Alley

  24. Was the popular music publishing center of the world from around 1885 to the 1920's Before it was established, publishers were scattered all over the country these early publishers played important roles in the printing and distribution of sheet music. Most music publishers also published church music, music instruction books, study pieces and classical items for home and school use. After the Civil War, people started to play the piano. By 1887 500,00 young Americans were learning the piano The demand for sheet music was great. Publishers decided to consolidate in New York. New York was becoming a cultural center in the United States. Performers lived there, music thrived there, musical trends happened there Tin Pan Alley

  25. Thomas B. Harms (Harms, Inc. started in 1881) Isadore Witmark. M. Witmark & Sons published their first sheet music I'll Answer That Question Tomorrow in 1885. Soon every major music publisher in America had a presence in what would become Tin Pan Alley Irving Berlin, Inc., Remick Music Co., Robbins Music Corp, and E. B. Marks Music Company These visionaries concentrated almost exclusively on popular music, and the key to their success was their use of market research to select music and the use of aggressive marketing techniques to sell the product. Song composers were hired under contract giving the publisher exclusive rights to popular composer's works Tin Pan Alley

  26. The market was surveyed to determine what style of song was selling best Then the composers were directed to compose in that style. a song was actually tested with both performers and listeners to determine which would be published and which would go to the trash bin music was becoming an industry more than an art Song pluggers (performers who worked in music shops playing the latest releases,) were hired Performers were persuaded to play the new songs in their acts to give the music exposure to the public Tin Pan Alley

  27. 28th street between 5th Avenue and Broadway. This street (28th) became known as "Tin Pan Alley. the first to establish themselves in the area known as Tin Pan Alley was most probably Leo Feist, a corset salesman who had a penchant for writing catchy lyrics In 1897 Feist rented a room at 1227 Broadway and with a piano and a partner began the music publication business with his first song, Does True Love Ever Run Smooth. The name symbolizes the sound of the many pianos being pounded in publisher's rooms which was characterized as sounding as though hundreds of people were pounding on tin pans. Tin Pan Alley

  28. vaudeville replaced the minstrel show as the most popular form of stage entertainment enormous amounts of money were to be made from the sale of songs popularized by these shows In the first two decades of its existence, Tin Pan Alley produced a succession of songs, remarkable from a commercial standpoint and for their endurance in American culture. Large numbers of songs from this period became widely known and are a part of our traditions even today. Give My Regards To Broadway (1904), Shine on Harvest Moon (1908,), Down by the Old Mill Stream (1910) and Let Me Call You Sweetheart Tin Pan Alley

  29. The lyrics of music from this period suggest that the USA was a peaceful, happy and prosperous place. The many songs about the past describe warm memories of happy and innocent times in rural or small town settings. The persistent image of one of the happiest and least troubled times in American history has been derived largely from these songs. Compare those images to today's music which is mostly in an urban setting with very disturbing and violent images. Tin Pan Alley was not about love peace and happiness, it was about selling songs. There were no altruistic desires on the part of the publishers to solve the problems of society nor were they attempting to create a happy world provide musical entertainment that allowed people to escape the realities of the hardships of life and their own life's troubles. Tin Pan Alley

  30. the publishers of Tin Pan Alley not only established an industry that continues in grand tradition but they also are responsible for the beautiful music and covers we enjoy today what remains of Tin Pan Alley was put up for sale and the buildings will most probably be razed to make way for "progress." The buildings, at 47, 49, 51, 53 and 55 West 28th Street, are being sold as a group for - hold on to your hat in these cacophonous economic times - a mere $44 million." Tin Pan Alley

  31. The Minstrel Show

  32. a theatrical entertainment consisting of songs, dances, comic turns, etc., performed by a troupe of actors wearing black face make-up troupe, company - organization of performers and associated personnel corner man, end man - a man at one end of line of performers in a minstrel show; carries on humorous dialogue with the interlocutor interlocutor, middleman - the performer in the middle of a minstrel line who engages the others in talk minstrel - a performer in a minstrel show The Minstrel Show

  33. The most popular musical stage shows of the early and mid 19th Century, In the US they began in the 1840s Both white and black performers donned blackface, and audiences of all colors loved it. minstrel shows were the first form of musical theatre that was 100% American-born and bred. performing songs and skits that sentimentalized the nightmare of slave life on Southern plantations By the end of the Civil War the minstrel show had become world famous and respectable Between 1750 and 1843, over 5,000 theater and circus productions included blackface. The Minstrel Show

  34. Some of the most famous songs in American history--Dixie, Camp town Races, Oh Susannah, My Old Kentucky Home--began as minstrel songs. Thomas "Daddy" Rice caused a nationwide sensation by donning burnt cork to perform the song "Jump Jim Crow" on stage. "Jim Crow" turned out to be more than a popular song. It became the name of one of minstrelsy's stock comedy characters, and a by-word for legalized racial oppression. three stock characters were among several that reappeared in minstrel shows throughout the nineteenth century. "Jim Crow" was the stereotypical carefree slave "Mr. Tambo" a joyous musician, Zip Coon" a free black attempting to "put on airs" or rise above his station The Minstrel Show

  35. The Minstrel Show

  36. Dan Emmett, Frank Bower, Frank Pelham and Billy Whitlock became the first troupe to offer a full evening of blackface variety entertainment. Most historians mark this production as the beginning of minstrelsy. Most of the entertainment was improvised They insulted each other, they baited each other, they made mincemeat of the language, they took the audience into their fun, and, in one night, they added a new form to show business in America The Minstrel Show

  37. in the twentieth century, several of the most famous minstrels were actually black me who wore makeup--the most famous being Bert Williams, who performed in blackface into the 1920s. The first talking picture, "The Jazz Singer," (1927) was a blackface film Minstrel shows continued to be popular well into the 1950s, High schools, fraternities and local theater groups would often perform minstrel shows in blackface. It became unpopular as African Americans asserted more political power in the 1950s. The Minstrel Show

  38. The long-running radio series Amos n' Andy featured two white actors impersonating contemporary black characters that were direct descendants of "Zip Coon" and "Jim Crow.“ Stephen Foster- American song writer of Camp town Races," "My Old Kentucky Home," "O Susanna Minstrel star Dan Emmett composed the unofficial Southern anthem "Dixie. George M. Cohan and Irving Berlin. Al Jolson- most famous actor who got his start in a minstrel show Jolson immortalized blackface in several films, including the talking landmark The Jazz Singer (1928). The Minstrel Show

  39. Jolson said that blackface gave him the emotional freedom he needed to take risks as a performer In the first half of the 20th Century, he was billed as "The World's Greatest Entertainer“ last star of minstrelsy legend in vaudeville, Al Jolson had dozens of top selling recordings Became the first talking film star Was a popular presence on network radio. The Minstrel Show

  40. The bizarre minstrel show might be easier to understand in modern terms. Think of white rappers, or white rock musicians who play blues-derived music. When they imitate black musicians, are they expressing admiration, or are they just stealing? Are they sincerely trying to come to some understanding of cultural difference, or are they just engaging in minstrel parody without the make up Similarly, are black musicians who play to a predominantly white audience, particularly those produced by Sean "Puffy" Combs, doing something similar to what Bert Williams did? The Minstrel Show

  41. In the 1880’s after the Industrial Revolution, people started to concentrate in cities and towns instead of rural communities Looking for higher paying jobs and more opportunities of success Worked hard and long hours and wanted to be entertained after hours variety shows were too coarse for women or children to attend, minstrel shows were already declining in popularity In a world where phonographs, film, radio and television did not yet exist, something new was needed to fill the gap. Vaudeville also tried to bridge a social gap that had divided American audiences Vaudeville was developed by entrepreneurs seeking higher profits from a wider audience. Vaudeville

  42. Tony Pastor-Invented Vaudeville in 1881 music and comedy" designed for family audiences Pastor showcased the finest talents on the variety stage, giving crucial opportunities to future stars Pastor never expanded beyond his small theatre near Union Square. A place families could call home for their entertainment Pastor's "clean" variety show was an instant success, drawing an enthusiastic audience from all age groups and classes – including some of the most influential people in New York.  Vaudeville

  43. Benjamin Franklin Keith and Edward F Albee made a quick fortune with unauthorized productions of Gilbert and Sullivan operettas. started build a chain of ornate theatres across the northeastern United States they instituted a policy of continuous multiple daily performances, which they called "vaudeville." vaudeville spread through the United States, major theatre chains or circuits were built By 1907 Vaudeville was earning $30 million a year A successful act toured for forty or more weeks a year, doing "one nighters," split-weeks or weekly stands depending on a theatre’s size Vaudeville

  44. In 1919, when the average factory worker earned less than $1,300, a small time circuit performer playing a forty-two week season at $75 per week earned $3,150 a year. The most celebrated vaudeville house of the early 1900s was New York's Victoria The Orpheum Circuit-The Palace Theatre An act could be anything that was inoffensive and entertaining. A performer's gender, race and appearance were no barrier to success, While singers and dancers were part of every bill, the specialty acts set vaudeville apart Vaudeville

  45. mind readers instrumentalists escape artists flash acts - any "showy" act boasting its own lavish set, a large chorus, special effects, etc. high divers quick-change artists strong men living statuary contortionists balancing acts freak acts - anyone acting crazy or silly - eccentric dancers, etc. Vaudeville

  46. Houdini Hadji Ali would swallow water & kerosene, then spew kerosene onto open flames, followed by the water to put the flames out. Not pretty, but audiences were fascinated. W.C. Fields Will Rogers Babe Ruth Douglas Fairbanks Judy Garland George Burns Abbot & Costello The Three Stooges Kate Smith Mickey Rooney Vaudeville

  47. As stars got more popular they went on to bigger projects Movies started to gain popularity audiences tastes changed and vaudeville theaters started to change over to movie theaters 1930’s talking movies Great Depression vaudeville singers and comics found a new home on radio, where "variety shows" offered something like audio vaudeville Vaudeville led to the immergence of family friendly entertainment on radio, television, and movies Ed Sullivan Show Leave it to beaver Carol Burnet show Vaudeville was precursor to Broadway and Motion Pictures Vaudeville

  48. Theater Owners and Booking Agency Black version of Vaudeville vaudeville had black and white performers sharing the same stage as early as the 1890s Most southern states did not allow blacks and whites to sit in the same theatre the only venues below the Mason-Dixon Line that welcomed "colored" customers in the early part of the 20th Century offered all-black bills for all-black audiences It was the only way they could reach the appreciative black audiences of the deep South TOBA

  49. Mason Dixon Line

  50. Ethel Waters - who went on to Broadway and film stardom Ma Rainey - jazz vocalist Bert Williams - Ziegfeld Follies star Bessie Smith - jazz vocalist Bill "Bojangles"Robinson - tap dance legend Many jazz artists got their start in TOBA black audiences saw the same kinds of acts found in standard vaudeville Faded in popularity due to the Great Depression TOBA