Chemistry PowerPoint - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chemistry PowerPoint
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Chemistry PowerPoint

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  1. Chemistry PowerPoint Written, designed, and published by Nick Long

  2. Ph stands for the potential of hydrogen. It is used to measure the acidity or basicity of a solution. The scale ranges from 0 to 14 where 0 is extremely acidic and 14 is extremely basic, 7 is neutral. Ph

  3. 0-6.9 on the ph scale is acidic. • Acids are used for many things including removing rusts from metals and acting as an electrolyte in wet cell batteries, like sulphuric acid in a car battery. They taste sour and can conduct electricity. There are also superacidsthat are 20 quintillion* times stronger than sulpheric acid. *according to wikipedia Acids

  4. 7.1- 14 on the ph scale is basic. • Bases are used in soaps, toothpastes, and cleaners such as bleach. They have a bitter taste and are slippery. Like superacids there are also superbases, bases that are several millions of times stronger than the strongest bases. Bases

  5. The atom is the smallest unit of a substance that still has the properties of that substance. In the periodic table of elements (see slide 14) each element has an atomic number, which is based off of the number of protons in that element’s atom. The number of electrons can vary and make the atom an ion by giving it a positive or negative charge, while adding more neutrons can make the element into an isotope, a slightly different version of that element. The Atom

  6. The three most commonly referenced subatomic particles are the proton, neutron, and electron. In combination they make up the atom. The electron has a negative charge but extremely little mass. The neutron and proton are nearly identical except the proton is slightly heavier and has a positive charge. These two particles are made up of still smaller particles called quarks. Subatomic Particles and Beyond

  7. Molecules are combinations of two or more atoms. Water, for example is written H2O. This means two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. In this molecule the atoms are held together in a bond made by shared electrons, but in other molecules the atoms are held together in an ionic bond, a bond formed by the attraction of two ions, like in NaCl, table salt, where the sodium “steals” an electron and makes both atoms ions, therefore forming an ionic bond. Molecules

  8. Mass is the amount of matter in an object, it is measured in grams and while weight isn’t constant everywhere in the universe mass is. Volume is the amount of space that an object takes up, solids and Bose- Einstein condensates have a definite volume but gasses, plasmas, and liquids do not. The density of an object or substance can be found by dividing the mass by the volume. The density of a material is the measure of how much mass is in a specific unit of volume. Density, Mass, and Volume

  9. A physical property is a property in something that can be found without changing the chemical composition of the substance, such as malleability, hardness, texture, etc.. Physical Properties

  10. A chemical property is a property that can be observed or measured by changing the substance’s chemical make-up. An example of a chemical change is the combination of hydrogen and oxygen to make water, or sodium and chlorine to make table salt. Signs of a chemical change are heat, new color, change in state, etc.. Chemical Properties

  11. Three examples of chemical reactions are: oxidation, combustion, and decomposition. Oxidation reactions are reactions like a rusting penny or a rusting iron nail. Combustion is the burning of a chemical, like fireworks. Decomposition is the breaking down of a complex substance into its simpler parts, like decomposing leaves. Chemical Reactions

  12. The law of conservation of energy and mass states that matter and energy in the universe is always the same, matter and energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but rather just changes form, it could go from a solid to a gas, plasma, liquid or bose-einstein condensate The Law of the Conservation of Energy and Mass

  13. The periodic table was originally made by Mendeleev, a Russian scientist. The table is arranged by the numbers of protons in the nucleus of the atom, the most reactive substances on the left with the noble gasses on the right along with the least reactive substances. It is also arranged in families in the columns. Periodic Table

  14. Periodic Table

  15. Energy comes in many different forms including; kinetic, radiation, heat, and electrical currents or electricity. Potential energy is the energy that an object has because of its position, like a ball that is sitting on the top of a hill. Energy

  16. Electromagnetism is the combined forces of electricity and magnetism. They are combined because an electrical current creates a magnetic field, while a wire moved through a magnetic field creates a electrical current. Some elements can conduct electricity with little resistance, creating a large magnetic field with little electricity. Electromagnetism

  17. !!!!!!!!THE END!!!!!!!! I hope that you enjoyed my presentation!