Describe and explain the effect that the industrial revolution had on sport after 1800. • Time – limited, 7 day week, Saturday half day • Space – none available, urbanisation, spectators, purpose built facilities, parks/playing fields, • Travel – available, away fixtures, regional/national, railways, need for rules • Education – compulsory, development of PE, Literacy • Holidays – less influence from church, industrial holidays, factory teams, animal sports banned, more equipment
Describe the role that National Governing Bodies played in the development of sport. • Establish rules • Organise competitions • Develop coaching • Grass root developments • National teams • Selections • Discipline • Funding/grants • Sponsorship/TV
Current & Future policies • School sport suffered because: • LA’s selling off playing fields • Growth of alternative sports outside of education • Increasing difficulty to train teachers in qualifications and specialist subjects • Reduction in timetable • Reduction in budget
Current & Future Policies • 1997 New Labour initiative for promotion of School Sport • Sports Colleges • Sports Partnerships • County Partnerships • Accredited awards – GCSE, BTEC, AS Level, SLUK • PESSCL’s initiative
Current policies PESSCL • £500 million hand out in 2002 • Again in 2004 • 85% participating in at least 2 hrs PE and School Sport a week by 2008 Sporting Future for All • 2000, Labour emphasis • 5 visions: sport in education (SSP’s etc), sport in community, sporting excellence, modernisation and implementation • National Framework for Sport superseded
Game Plan • Set up in 2002 (UK government) 2020 vision • Increase participation of population (70%) 5x 30mins week • Success at international competitions • 10% increase in sport = 6000 deaths prevented, saving £500 million • Talent ID
Lifelong Participation • What are the levels on the pyramid? • Where does the term lifelong participation fit in? • What does Lifelong Participation mean?
Constraints on participation • Limited due to exclusivity and elitism of some sports (rowing, yachting, riding etc) • Lack of time • Differing levels of participation • Gender? • Demands of work and family
Constraints on participation • Facilities may not be local • Participation costs • No vacancies • Availability • Inner city/rural? • Expensive/exclusive equipment
Constraints on participation • Attitudes of teachers, parents, guardians, family or friends • Peer pressure and lack of confidence = lack of acceptance • Religious beliefs • Traditional stereotyping – feminine and masculine sports
Participation in the UK (The General Household Survey, ONS 2002)
UK National Audit Office 2001 – Obesity costs the NHS £500 million a year! Wider costs to UK economy costs a further £2 billion a year!
Department of Health 2009 – if the nation continues the way it is…9 out of 10 kids grow up with dangerous levels of fat in their body!
Suggestions… • Poor education? • Negative perceptions? • New technological advances? • Transportation advances? • Expense? • Access?
Target groups • Groups that find it difficult to access sport and recreation • Women • Low income earners • Ethnic minorities • Very young • Very old • Disabled
Identify the theory behind the Sports Development Pyramid and explain the intentions behind each section. • Policy designed for all individuals, recognising ability levels • Pyramid due to fewer elite than grassroots • Foundation – low ability, basic skills, K&U, school PE • Participation – increased options, leisure, awareness, HRE, extra curricular • Performance/Competition – specialist coaching, club/regional/national • Elite/Excellence – national standards, public recognition
Discuss the role of Sports Colleges in the development of SSPs • Nearly 500 SC in England • PDM based at SC – central figure • PDM links with surrounding schools and local facilities • SSP achieved through PDM and staff (PLT and SSCO’s alongside PE teachers) • SSCO – day to day improving school sport including out of hrs and extra curricular • PLT – quality and quantity of PE in their own schools