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  • Uploaded on /~xgayer/. Real-time simulation and visualization techniques for combustion processes and general fluids. Marek Gayer (supervisor Pavel Slavík ) C omputer G raphics G roup Department of Computer Science and Engineering Faculty of Electrical Engineering

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real time simulation and visualization techniques for combustion processes and general fluids

Real-time simulation and visualization techniques for combustion processes and general fluids

Marek Gayer (supervisor Pavel Slavík)

Computer Graphics Group

Department of Computer Science and Engineering

Faculty of Electrical Engineering

Czech Technical University in Prague

The defense of the PhD thesis April, 27, 2006 Prague, Czech Republic

outline of the presentation
Outline of the presentation
  • Introduction and motivation for visualization of dynamic processes and objectives of the thesis
  • Presentation of major thesis contributions
    • Acceleration of simulation
    • Higher quality of images achieved by the use of GPU
    • Interactive visualization of dynamic processeswith tree based data structures
      • Fluid Simulator States (FSS)
      • FSS Tree
      • Unsteady Data Sets (UDS) Tree
  • Conclusion and future work
  • Live demonstration of the dynamic visualization
thesis objectives
Thesis objectives
  • Design and implement techniques that together could be used to form a solution allowing interactively visualizedynamic processes – namely for pulverized coal combustion processes in real time(2D, namely for education).
  • Contributions of the thesis should be reusable in general projects regarding fluids
  • No ambitions for reaching precision or compete professional combustion software
objective interactive visualization of dynamic processes e g fluid processes
Objective: Interactive visualization of dynamic processes (e.g. fluid processes)
  • Understanding of a dynamic process is possible only with a dynamic (real-time) and interactive visualization
  • Dynamic processes are described by complex differential equations (slow to compute)
  • Combustion processes which our thesis deals with is a use case of solving this problem
introduction and motivation to coal combustion modelling and visualization
Introduction and motivation to coal combustion modelling and visualization
  • Both for the ecological and economical reasons
  • Finding optimal boiler configurations
    • To reduce pollution
    • Combustion optimization
    • To find a way for optimal fuel preparation
  • How can visualization help
modelling and visualization of combustion by existing cfd software
Modelling and visualization of combustion by existing CFD software
  • Most often: solving complex differential equations (e.g. Navier-Stokes)
  • Coal combustion as a CFD application
  • Current solutions and systems:

Precise, robust

Slow, complex, expensive, non real-time => unsuitable e.g. for education (ANSYS, Fluent => 1 frame = several minutes - hours)



thesis contributions leading to dynamic real time visualization of dyn processes
Thesis contributions leading to dynamic, real-time visualization of dyn. processes
  • Speeding up the computation of data for consecutive visualization
  • Use HW acceleration for quality yet fast visualization of the data
  • Pre-calculate parts of simulation, then run simulation accelerated so dynamic real-time visualization can be achieved
problem 1 the classical simulation of combustion by existing solvers is slow
Problem 1: The classical simulation of combustion by existing solvers is slow
  • Solution / contribution of the thesis:
    • Fast fluid simulator based on Euler and continuity equation allowing real-time interactivity
    • Original virtual coal particle system using simplified combustion model, suitable for both the simulation and visualization
the fluid simulator
The Fluid Simulator
  • Dividing boiler area to structured grid cell arrays containing:
    • Velocities
    • Masses/Pressures
    • O2 concentrations
    • Temperatures
  • State update
  • Principle of local simulation
virtual coal particle system
Virtual coal particle system
  • Used for both simulation and visualization of the combustion process
  • Virtual particle system approach
  • Simplified combustion and heat transfer computation
problem 2 how to visualize simulated data fast and with good quality
Problem 2: How to visualize simulated data fast and with good quality?
  • Solution / contribution of the thesis:
    • High quality bicubic spline contours visualization
    • Non-jagged isolines
    • Computed parallel by pixel or vertex shaders on GPU’s of the current graphics accelerators
real time visualization with bicubic spline patches interpolation
Real-time Visualization with Bicubic Spline Patches Interpolation

Better quality then linear

Complex computations with 4x4 and 4x1 vector matrices (2x)

Non real-time when not accelerated – (graphics hardware natively supports only linear interpolation)

Our contribution utilizing

Modern GPU’s paralell

processing gains

real-time performance





utilization of gpu shaders
Utilization of GPU shaders
  • Vertex & fragment programs (shaders)
  • Works on common current mainstream graphics hardware
  • Texture mapping interpolation core running on GPU (high quality per-pixel / per-vertex)
  • Optional per-vertex subdivision - pixels between vertices are linear interpolated
non jagged isolines contour lines
Non-Jagged Isolines (contour lines)
  • Simple modification of mapping textures:

Simple, fast(no additionalcomputations at all!)

Smooth, non jagged

Blurry on certainplaces with lowgradients




problem 3 how to gain real time visualization even with slow simulation
Problem 3: How to gain real-time visualization even with slow simulation?
  • Contribution / solution of the thesis:
    • Fluid Simulator States
    • Fluid Simulator States Tree
    • Unsteady Data Sets Tree
storing results for real time replaying
Storing results for real-time replaying
  • Used when computation is too slow for real-time simulation and visualization
  • Results are stored on hard disk, then real-time replayed
    • Data sets for selected characteristics
    • AVI and MPEG files
    • Limited interaction
extending fluid simulator with fluid simulator states fss
Extending Fluid Simulator with Fluid Simulator States (FSS)
  • Simulation is divided into two phases:
    • Storing phase - fluid simulator states for each time step are saved on HDD
    • Replaying phase- simulation runs accelerated with pre-computed fluid simulator states; we can interactively set parameters of visualization
  • Except first frame, no other data are saved (e.g. particles, characteristics)
  • State files are stored in binary files

First frame (complete state)

Second Frame



Collection of cascadingFSS states for accelerateddatasets generation...

Frame N - 1

Last frame (complete state)

unsteady simulation datasets uds
Unsteady simulation datasets (UDS)
  • Stores one or more characteristics for selected time part
  • Can allow real-time replaying of results
  • Full interactivity in visualization part
  • After storing, no interactivity in simulation part possible
  • No additional changes to already computed data and configuration
feature comparison of fss against common unsteady data sets uds
Feature comparison of FSS against common unsteady data sets (UDS)

Much less disk requirements (only fluid simulator states are being saved)

Lower disk bandwidth

Better scalability for large grids and/or tasks with many particles

Same or even better acceleration resulting in better interactivity

No seeking and skip frame ability






comparison of fss and uds tree advantages against direct simulation
Comparison of FSS and UDS tree advantages against direct simulation

Can run in orders faster

Seeking and skip frame ability (UDS)

Creating hierarchy of replay-able results

Incremental step-by-step solution

Constructing of paths of solution

Interactivity is allowed only in the nodes of the tree

UDS requires disk bandwidth and capacity








reusability possible applications
Reusability - possible applications
  • Originally used for our fluid application for combustion processes
  • Parts can be reused for other simulation and visualization applications
    • Fluid simulator
    • Contours visualization
  • E.g.: simulation and animation of liquids, water and gaseous phenomena
conclusion of major contributions
Conclusion of major contributions
  • Fast data generator for dynamic visualization
    • Fast & simple real-time fluid simulator
    • Particle system with simplified combustion engine
    • Interactive changes to the model during run
  • Quality contours and contour lines visualization using pixel or vertex shaders on GPU
  • Real-time data based structures for interactive visualization and accelerated simulation
    • Fluid Simulator States
    • Fluid Simulator States Tree
    • Unsteady Data Sets Tree
possible future research and work
Possible future research and work
  • In general, create a more precise computational model or enhance and extend current equations
  • Enhancements to the combustion and thermodynamics engine and fluid simulator
  • Convert the whole project to 3D
  • Create 3D FSS and UDS Trees
  • Create more user-friendly user interface
  • Dynamic visualization of other phenomena's
the awards for the thesis contributions fluid simulator virtual particle system
The awards for the thesis contributions (fluid simulator, virtual particle system)
  • 2003, CTU FEE at PragueAward of Dean of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of the Czech Technical University in Prague for work Simulation and Visualization of Combustion Powered by Fluid Simulator, presented at conference CTU Poster 2003
  • 2003, Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication (BUT FEEC) - Award of Dean for the best work in the International Competition of student creative projects Student EEICT 2003
  • 2003, CTU in PraguePrice of the rector for placing between the best projects of PhD students, that were solved within scope of CTU internal grants and that were presented on conferenceCTU Workshop 2003
thank you for your attention
Thank you for your attention.


Do you have any questions ?

question 1 doc pavel zem k
Question 1 (doc. Pavel Zemčík)
  • The presented thesis does contain description of a novel “simplified” fluid and combustion modeling/simulation method (Chapter 5); it also contains comparison of the results of the method with other simulation system and from that comparison it seems that the simulation results of the proposed method are not very precise (some of the global values are over 20% different). Given these facts, is the proposed modeling/simulation method still usable for investigation of e.g. the airflow?
reply 1 precision of the model
Reply 1(Precision of the model)
  • The level precision = weak part, because:
  • Price for the interactive visualization; instead of 1 picture / minutes => several pictures / seconds
  • Combustion experts from P.E.of faculty of M.E.CTU: for overview of dynamics is OK
  • Not for professional design
  • By further improvement and adding some equations could approach reality better.
  • When using it for airflow only => less errors; no dynamic combustion code
question 2 doc pavel zem k
Question 2(doc. Pavel Zemčík)
  • Has the proposed combustion process visualization system been evaluated from the point of view of “accuracy” of perception of the process by humans? Do any visualization parameters (e.g. way of shading of the particles as shown in Figure 10-2 versus 10-3, color assignment, etc.) affect the “understandability” of the image by humans?
reply 2 particle visualization
Reply 2 (Particle visualization)
  • For the grid, we use visualization methods, that are standard for other combustion systems (our offers better quality and performance)
  • Particles - we have many possibilities to display
    • Using various palettes and colors (with scales)
    • Size of the particle, particle tracks
    • We can even use same methods as for the cells
    • Statistics
  • Moving particles and particle tracks display important visualization parameter – the dynamics
  • No tests of accuracy of perception of the users
  • No user complaints regarding understandability
  • Possitive feedback from student users
question 3 doc pavel zem k
Question3 (doc. Pavel Zemčík)
  • The precision of the simulation process generally depends on the integration (simulation) time step. Does the proposed real-time simulation in general achieve optimum precision from this point of view? If not, does the system have any information about the precision of simulation (e.g. “now the simulation is too complex and to achieve real-time performance, the precision has been given up…”)?
reply 3 time steps and precision
Reply 3 (Time steps and precision)
  • To achieve fast performance, we are always choosing the lowest time steps as possible
  • The timestep is set manually
  • Increased timestep, the results slightly more precise in most characteristics, but still the difference between the Fluent not consid. better
  • The greater precision should be achieved by enhancing combustion and heat transfer equations, or replace fluid simulator with another one and use our proposed accelerating structures to keep it real-time.
  • Or use some precise simulator as data source
q4 how the 2d results can be composed into a 3d visualization system doc andrej ferko
Q4 - How the 2d results can be composed into a 3d visualization system ? (doc. Andrej Ferko)
  • The 2D results represent the 3D boiler slice with selectable depth of the slice
  • By linear interpolation, we can divide the voxels & convert it to another grid
  • Alternatively, values of several slices of boiler could be computed and composed to display
  • We can use existing visualization systems and methods for visualization (e.g. volume rendering, flow visualization methods spot noise, LIC)
  • Last possibility – re-implement to 3D