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Leadership & Motivation. INTRODUCTION INFLUENCING THE BEHAVIOUR OF PEOPLE IN A PARTICULAR DIRECTION IS CALLED ‘LEADERSHIP’ WHILST INSPIRING PEOPLE TO WORK WITH GREATER ZEAL AND COOPERATION TO THE BEST OF THEIR ABILITY IS ‘ MOTIVATION’.

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slide2

INTRODUCTION

  • INFLUENCING THE BEHAVIOUR OF PEOPLE IN A PARTICULAR DIRECTION IS CALLED ‘LEADERSHIP’
  • WHILST
  • INSPIRING PEOPLE TO WORK WITH GREATER ZEAL AND COOPERATION TO THE BEST OF THEIR ABILITY IS ‘MOTIVATION’
slide3
LEADERSHIP is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for group objectives
  • LEADERSHIP is interpersonal influence exercised in a situation and directed through the communication process, forwards the attainment of a specialised goal or goals
  • LEADERSHIP is the process of influencing the activities of an individual or group in efforts toward goal achievement in a given situation
  • LEADERSHIP is a function of the leader, the follower and other situational variables
  • LEADERSHIP is effective management
slide4

Leadership transforms potential into reality.

  • It is like the effect of that Chemical which turns the insect pupa- the caterpillar into a butterfly
  • with all the beauty that was the pupa’s potential.
  • Leadership ispart of management , butnot all of it.
effective management
Effective Management
  • Purposeful and Efficient use of Resources for Achieving the desired objective
  • Leadership is a dynamic process varying from situation to situation with changes in leaders followers and situation
slide6

LEADERSHIPBEHAVIOR

  • LEADER
  • FOLLOWER SITUATION
  • LEADERSHIP IS A FUNCTION OF LEADER, FOLLOWER & SITUATION
  • LEADERSHIP
  • BEHAVIOR
  • LEADERSHIP
  • BEHAVIOUR
slide7

LEADERSHIP CONTINUUM

  • (AUTHORITATIVE) (DEMOCRATIC)
  • TASK ORIENTED RELATIONSHIP ORIENTED
  • AREA OF AUTHORITY
  • BY LEADER
  • AREA FOR FREEDOM
  • FOR SUBORDINATES
  • AUTOCRATIC
  • CONSULTATIVE
  • DEMOCRATIC
  • BENEVOLENTAUTOCRATIC
  • PARTICIPATIVE
  • FREE-REIN
  • TANNENBAUM & SCHMIDT - 1958
slide8

BLAKE & MOUTON MANAGERIAL GRID

  • HIGH
  • CONCERN FOR PEOPLE
  • LOW
  • 9
  • 8
  • 7
  • 6
  • 5
  • 4
  • 3
  • 2
  • 1
  • 1-9
  • 9-9
  • COUNTRY
  • CLUB
  • TEAM
  • 5-5
  • MIDDLE ROAD
  • TASK
  • IMPOUERISHED
  • 1-1
  • 9-1
  • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
  • (LOW) CONCERN FOR PRODUCTION (HIGH)
slide9

FOR PEOPLE

  • PARTICIPATING
  • SELLING
  • S3
  • S2
  • S1
  • S4
  • DELEGATING
  • TELLING
  • CONCERN FOR TASK
  • M4 M3 M2 M1
  • PAUL HERSEY –SITUATIONAL LEADEERSHIP
slide10

CHRYS ARGYRIS ON FOLLOWERS

  • MATURITYIMMATURITY
  • ABILITY INABILITY
  • WILLINGNESS UNWILLINGNESS
  • M1 --- UNABLE & UNWILLING
  • M2 --- UNABLE & WILLING
  • M3 ---- ABLE & UNWILLING
  • M4 --- ABLE & WILLING
slide11

LEADERSHIP SKILLS AT VARIOUS LEVELS

  • 100
  • PERCENTAGE
  • OF
  • JOB
  • DESIGN
  • CONCEPTUAL
  • HUMAN
  • 50
  • TECHNICAL
  • 0
  • SUPERVISOR MIDDLE TOP
  • MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT
slide12

LEADERSHIP STYLE

  • Leadership style of an individual is the behavior pattern that person exhibits when attempting to influence the activities of others - as perceived by others.
  • STYLE RANGE
  • An individual’s style range is the extent to which that person is able to vary his or her leadership style.
  • STYLE ADAPTABILITY
  • Style adaptability is the degree to which the leader is able to vary his/her style appropriately to the demands of a given situation.
  • STYLE RANGE IS NOT AS RELEVANT TO EFFECTIVE-NESS AS STYLE ADAPTABILITY: A WIDE STYLE RANGE WILL NOT GUARANTEE EFFECTIVENESS.
slide13

POWER

  • ‘POWER IS AN ABILITY TO GET AN INDIVIDUAL OR A GROUP TO DO SOMETHING - TO GET THE PERSON OR GROUP TO CHANGE IN SOME WAY’
  • TYPES OF POWER
  • COERCIVE
  • CONNECTION
  • REWARD
  • LEGITIMATE
  • REFERENT
  • INFORMATION
  • EXPERT
  • POSITION POWER
  • PERSONAL POWER
managers and leaders
Administers

is a copy

Maintains

Focus on system & structure

relies on control

short-range view

asks how and why

eye on the botton-line

accepts the status quo

Imitates

Does things right

Innovates

is an original

Develops

Focus on people

inspires trust

long-range perspective

asks what and why?

eye on the horizon

his own person

Originates

Does the Right Things

Managers and Leaders:

Leaders

Managers

what skills do leaders need
What Skills Do Leaders Need
  • Cultural Flexibility

Manage, Recognise the value of Diversity

  • Communication Skills
  • HRD Skills
  • Creativity

Climate that encourages creativity

  • Self Management of Learning

Continuous Learning Self learners

factors involved in ability to lead

Insight into

Human

Behaviour

Decision

Making

Ability

Ability to

Relate To

Others

Ability To

Plan

Organise

& Direct

Factors Involved in Ability to lead
key strategic leadership roles
Key Strategic Leadership Roles
  • Navigator
  • Strategist
  • Entrepreneur
  • Mobiliser
  • Talent advocate
  • Captivator
  • Global thinker
  • Change driver
  • Enterprise guardian
leadership qualities
Leadership Qualities
  • Decisiveness
  • Integrity
  • Enthusiasm
  • Imagination
  • Willing to work hard
  • Analytical mind
  • Understanding others
  • Ability to spot opportunities
  • Ability to meet unpleasant situations
  • Ability to adapt to change
  • Willing to take risks
  • Intelligence & Self Confidence
  • Emotional Stability
  • Human Relation Skill

Conceptual Ability

traits for leadership
Traits for Leadership
  • Self-confidence and well integrated personality
  • Competency in handling new situations
  • Identity with the goals and values of the group he leads
  • Warmth, sensititivity and sympathy towards others
  • Enthusiasm and capacity for expression, in a degree, positively more than average
slide20

Leader

Drives his men

Depends on authority

Evokes fear

Says I

Shows who is wrong

Knows how it is done

Demands respect

Inspires them

Depends on goodwill

Radiates love

Says We

Shows what is wrong

Knows how to do it

Commands respect

Boss

Boss says “Go!”

Leader says “Let’s go!”

function of leaders
Function of Leaders
  • Task Needs Defining the task

Making the plan

Allocating work and resources

Controlling quality and tempo of work

  • Group Needs Setting standards by personalexamples

Maintaining discipline; correcting mistakes

Building team spirit

Encouraging, motivating, giving a sense of purpose

Appointing sub-Leaders

Ensuring communication within the group

  • Individual Needs Attending to personal problems

Praising of individuals

Knowing individuals personally

Recognising and using special individual abilities

Training individuals

motivation is anything that causes a person to act to change behaviour
Enthusiastic

Optimistic

Positive attitude

Confident

Confident

Self Directed

Desire to succeed

works well with people

Motivation is anything that causes a person to act to change behaviour

Characteristics

slide25

MOTIVATION

  • [LATIN ‘MOVERE’ = TO MOVE]
  • “It refers to something dynamic that arises from within a person and manifests in his/her observable behavior.”
  • “IT IS THE INNER URGE TO DO”
  • “The internal energizing force which prompts a person to improve his performance, his behavior”
slide26

SOME TIPS TO MOTIVATE ? ?

1. Be vague

2. Discourage clarifications

3. Discourage repetition of questions

4. Show impatience

5. Criticise even minor errors

6. Do not disclose the purpose / results

7. Change instructions

8. Encourage dependency

9. Set impossible deadlines

10. Improve on everything one does

slide27

HOW NOT TO BE A MOTIVATOR

  • 1. BE VAGUE
  • 2. DISCOURAGE CLARIFICATIONS
  • 3. DISCOURAGE REPETITION OF QUESTIONS
  • 4. SHOW IMPATIENCE
  • 5. CRITICISE EVEN MINOR ERRORS
  • 6. DO NOT DISCLOSE THE PURPOSE / RESULTS
  • 7. CHANGE INSTRUCTIONS
  • 8. ENCOURAGE DEPENDENCY
  • 9. SET IMPOSSIBLE DEADLINES
  • 10. IMPROVE ON EVERYTHING ONE DOES
slide28

PERFORMANCE

  • %

OF

  • ABILITY
  • AREA AFFECTED
  • BY MOTIVATION
  • 80-90%
  • 20-30%
  • PERFORMANCE = MOTIVATION x (ABILITY + KNOWLEDGE)
slide29

MOTIVES

  • (NEEDS
  • GOAL - DIRECTED ACTIVITY (preparing food)
  • BEHAVIOUR
  • GOALS
  • (INCENTIVES)
  • GOAL ACTIVITY (eating food)
slide30

CONTINUED BEHAVIOR

  • SUCCESS
  • ATTEMPTEDHIGHA.B.
  • BEHAVIORSTRENGTH2
  • 1NEEDS
  • COPING BEHAVIOR
  • BLOCKADE
  • BLOCKADE
an early behavioural model mcgregors theory x and theory y
An Early Behavioural Model:McGregors Theory X and Theory Y
  • One view of nature of people has been expressed in two sets of assumptions known as “Theory X and Theory Y”
  • Managing should start with how managers see themselves in relation to others
  • Some thought on perception of human nature is required
  • Theory X and theory Y are two sets of assumptions about nature of people
slide32

DOUGLAS McGREGOR:

THEORY XTHEORY Y

  • Work is distasteful - Work is as natural as Play

2. People are not ambitious, - Can be self-directed have little desire for Responsibility & creative at work if & prefer to be directed. properly motivated

3. Little capacity for creativity - capacity for creativity is widely distributed.

4. Motivation at the physiological - Motivation at the social, & safety levels. esteem & self actualisation levels.

5. Must be closely controlled & - self-control. often coerced.

slide33

ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY

ECONOMIC NEEDS

RELATEDNESS NEEDS

GROWTH NEEDS

slide34

MCLELAND’S NEED THEORY

  • Need Association
  • Need Growth
  • Need Recognition
the hierarchy of needs theory
The Hierarchy of Needs Theory
  • Abraham Maslow put forth this widely mentioned theories of motivation
  • Maslow saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to the highest
  • Needs
    • Physiological needs. These are basic needs for sustaining human lives
    • Security or safety needs. To be free of physical danger
    • Affiliation, or acceptance, needs. People are social beings. So they need to belong, to be accepted by others
    • Esteem needs. People want to be held in esteem both by themselves and by others
    • Need for self actualization. This is the highest need. This is desire to become what one is capable of becoming
slide36

HIERARCHY OF NEEDS

META MOTIVATION

SELF ACTUALISATION

ESTEEM

SOCIAL

SAFETY

PHYSIOLOGICAL

  • ABRAHAM MASLOW
the motivation hygiene approach to motivation
The Motivation-Hygiene Approach to Motivation
  • Frederick Herzberg and his associates considerably modified Maslow’s need approach
  • They propounded a two-factor theory of motivation
  • In one group of needs are such things as company policy and administration, supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relations, salary, status, job security and personal life
  • These were found by Herzberg to be only dissatisfies and not motivators
slide38

HERTZBERG’S HYGEINE THEORY

  • HYGEINE FACTORS(DISSATISFIERS)(WORK CONTEXT)
  • MOTIVATING FACTORS(SATISFIERS)(WORK CONTENT)
other theories of motivation
Other Theories of motivation
  • Expectancy theory of motivation
    • Leader in this is Victor H. Vroom
    • He holds that people will be motivated to do things to reach a goal if they believe in the worth of that goal
  • Equity theory
    • An important factor in motivation is weather individuals perceive the reward structure as being fair
other theories of motivation contd
Other Theories of motivation (contd.)
  • Reinforcement theory
    • Positive reinforcement or behaviour modification
    • Individuals can be motivated by proper design of work environment and praise for their performance
    • Punishment for poor performance produces poor results
slide41

VICTOR VROOM’S THEORY

  • MOTIVATION =
  • VALENCY * EXPECTANCY
factors that tend to motivate
Good Working Cond.

Good Salary

Job Security

Job Satisfaction

Status & Respect

Accountability

New Responsibilities

Good Superdisors

Promotions

Praise & Recognition

Participation in decision

Getting on well with staff

Factors That Tend To Motivate
ways to motivate subordinates
Ways To Motivate Subordinates
  • Set Good Example
  • Develop and Maintain Good Relations
  • Place Where They Can Work Best
  • Use Participative Style
  • Guide, Encourage & Support
  • Reward Good Work
  • Build Team Spirit
  • Provide Continuing Education
transactional analysis
Transactional Analysis
  • TA is a method of analyzing and understanding behaviour that was developed by Eric Berne
  • TA is an outgrowth of Freudian psychology
  • Sigmond Freud was the first to suggest that there are three sources within the human personality that stimulate, monitor and control behaviour
  • He described concepts of id, ego, superego
  • These concepts are difficult to understand unless one is a trained psychologist
slide45
TA
  • In TA though the concepts were borrowed from Freud but have been put in a language that everyone can understand
  • It can be used for diagnostic purposes in understanding why people behave as they do
slide46
TA
  • A transaction is a stimulus plus a response
  • Example:
    • If you say to one of your staff, “Sister, You really did a fine job”
    • This is a stimulus
    • If she says, “Thanks,” – that’s a response
  • Thus transactions take place between people
  • They can also take place between “people” in your heads
  • You may suddenly have an impulse to say something to someone. You may mentally hear a voice telling us not to say it and then a second voice agreeing.
  • These “people” in our heads are called ego states
personality
Personality
  • The personality of a person is the collection of behaviour patterns developed over time
  • Other people recognize that pattern as that person
  • These behaviour patterns are evoked in different degrees from three ego states – Parent, Adult and Child
personality and ego states
Personality And Ego States
  • A parent has Parent, Adult and Child ego states
  • A child also has Parent, Adult and Child ego states
  • These ego states have nothing to do with chronological age, only psychological age
  • These ego states cannot be directly observed but behaviour can be observed and infer which of the ego states is operating at that moment
parent ego state
Parent Ego state
  • Parent ego state is a result of messages people receive from their parents, older sisters and brothers, teachers
  • These can be thought of as messages recorded on little cassette tapes in peoples heads
  • They are in place, stored up and ready to go – only the right button have to be pressed.
  • Parent ego states are the value laden part of behaviour – this is good, this is bad and so on
  • This is not necessarily real but learned value.
parent ego state1
Parent Ego state
  • There are two kinds of parent ego state:
    • Nurturing Parent
      • That behaviour that is nurturing and caring about other people
      • This behaviour will not put the people down and make them feel not okay as individual
    • Critical Parent
      • Makes people feel that they and not just their behaviour are not okay
      • Attacks peoples personalities and their behaviour
adult ego state
Adult Ego State
  • Adult ego states evoke behaviour that is
    • Logical
    • Rational
    • Reasonable and
    • Unemotional
  • This Behaviour is characterized by problem-solving analysis and rational decision making
  • In this, the emotional content of Child ego state and the value laden content of Parent ego state are checked out in the reality of external world
child ego state
Child Ego State
  • This is associated with behaviour when people respond emotionally.
  • This contains the natural impulses and attitudes learned from child experiences
  • There are two forms of Child ego state:
    • Happy Child
      • Here people does things because they want to
      • They are not disruptive to others or destructive to environment
    • Destructive Child
      • They do because they feel like doing this
      • But their behaviour is disruptive to others and destructive to environment
child ego state1
Child Ego State
  • One form of Destructive Child is
    • Rebellious Child
      • When in this ego state, people are not going to listen to any one who tells them what to do
      • They may openly rebel or
      • Rebel subtly by forgetting, being confused or putting off doing something that someone wants them to do
    • Compliant Child
      • They do what others want. This is okay if they really want to or it makes sense to do it.
      • In this case the compliant child will be classified as Happy Child because it does not disrupt others
      • Compliant Child can hurt development of people who comply unquestionably all the time even when it makes no sense
      • These people tend to remain dependent rather than become independent
      • When this occurs, Compliant Child becomes a form of Destructive Child
a healthy personality
A Healthy Personality
  • All people behave from the three ego states at different times
  • A healthy person maintains a balance among all three, particularly, Nurturing Parent, Adult and Happy Child
  • Though a balance is healthy, but some people are dominated at times by one or two ego states
life position
Life Position
  • In the process of growing up people make assumptions about themselves as well as other significant people in the environment
  • These assumptions are expressed in terms of “okayness”
  • Individuals assume either they are OK or not OK. Other individuals are also assumed as either OK or not OK
  • Four possible positions emerge:
    • I am OK you are OK
    • I am OK you are not OK
    • I am not OK you are OK
    • I am not OK you are not OK
transaction between people
Transaction between People
  • TA may be used to explain why people behave in a specific pattern
  • In this analysis, the basic observational unit is called transaction
  • Transactions are exchanges between people
  • This analysis enables people to identify patterns of transaction between themselves and others
  • This can help us determine which ego state is most heavily influencing our behaviour and the behaviour of other people with whom we interact
types of transaction
Types of Transaction
  • For managers two types of transactions are important:
    • Open
    • Blocked
  • Open Transactions
    • There are many combinations
    • The basic principle is that the ego state that is addressed is the one that responds
    • The response to the stimulus is the expected or predictable one
    • When this occurs, communication can continue
    • Open transactions are Adult to Adult, Child to Child, Parent to Child and Parent to Parent
  • Blocked Transaction
    • Results in one that results in the closing, at least temporarily, of communications.
    • Unlike open transactions, the response is either inappropriate or unexpected, as well as being out of context with what the sender of the stimulus had originally intended
blocked transaction contd
Blocked Transaction (Contd.)
    • This occurs when a person responds with an ego state different from the one the other person is addressing
    • The lines of communication gets crossed and stop effective communication, though talking may continue
  • By analyzing open and blocked transactions, it is possible to determine the strengths of the three ego states
  • We can thus gather data on individuals in a way that will help to predict future patterns of behaviour