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TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP. A Practical Application Dr Thelma van der Merwe Nursing Saudiization Department KFSH&RC October 2004. Guiding Question :. How could transformational leadership be implemented within an organisation?. OBJECTIVES. Define transformational leadership

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Transformational leadership l.jpg
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP

A Practical Application

Dr Thelma van der Merwe

Nursing Saudiization Department

KFSH&RC

October 2004


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Guiding Question:

How could transformational leadership be implemented within an organisation?


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OBJECTIVES

  • Define transformational leadership

  • Assess transformational leadership theory

  • Analyse characteristics of transformational leaders

  • Analyse competencies needed for transformational leadership

  • Analyse a transformational leadership case study


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DEFINITIONS

  • A leadership style focused on effecting revolutionary change in organisations through a commitment to the organisation’s vision

    (Sullivan & Decker, 2001)


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DEFINITIONS CONT…

  • Transformational leaders have the ability to clearly articulate a vision of the future…

  • They are the myth-makers, the storytellers

  • They capture our imagination with the vivid descriptions of the wonderful future we will build together

    (Trofino, 1992)


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TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY

Why transformational leadership?

  • Nurture employees

  • Build & facilitate nursing leadership in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)

  • Respond current nursing shortages


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TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY CONT…

  • Future nurse leaders

    - change from command & control

    - reduce excessive policies & rituals

    - share the power

    • are not concerned with status quo

    • bring revolutionary change in organisations & humans


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CHARACTERISTICS

  • Leaders & followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality

  • Empowering others to achieve a shared vision – transforms both

  • Appeal to individuals to better themselves


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CHARACTERISTICS CONT…

  • Fosters followers inborn desires for higher values, morals, humanitarian ideals

  • Moves individuals beyond transactions & interpersonal exchanges to perform beyond basic expectations

  • Uses power to instill a belief followers can do exceptional things


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CHARACTERISTICS CONT…

  • Commit people to action

  • Convert followers into leaders

  • Convert leaders into change agents, innovators

  • Are courageous


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CHARACTERISTICS CONT…

  • Believe in people

  • Are value driven

  • Are lifelong learners

  • Can deal with complexity


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DIMENSIONS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP

The four ‘I’s’

  • Idealised influence (charisma):

    - follower admiration & respect,

    - risk sharing

    - consideration for follower needs

    - ethical & moral conduct (trust)


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DIMENSIONS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP CONT…

  • Inspirational motivation

    - meaning & challenge to work

  • Intellectual stimulation

    - creative problem solving

  • Individualised consideration

    - listening, praising

    (Bass & Avolio, 1994)


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LEADERSHIP COMMITMENTS

  • Search for opportunities to change/ grow

  • Experiment

  • Shared uplifting vision

  • Inform & share power

  • Individualize projects


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LEADERSHIP COMMITMENTS CONT…

  • Involve team

  • Commit

  • Harness individual potential

  • Facilitate conditions for knowledge based workers

  • Celebrate achievements


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ENVISIONING THE FUTURE

  • Central to achievement of organisational goals

  • Emerged from management by objectives & strategic planning

  • A vision is an opportunity to rethink: ‘where are we now’ & ‘where do we want to be’


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A SUCCESSFUL VISION

  • Pre-requisites

    - must make sense to the staff

    - powerful to excite, motivate & generate commitment

    - emphasise what may be

    - clarify what should be


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A SUCCESSFUL VISION CONT…

  • First stage

    - uniqueness of group

    - true priorities for next year

    - why would I commit for next 1-5 years?

    - what achievements will make us proud?


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SUCCESSFUL VISION CONT…

  • Second stage

    • Internal & external needs analysis

    • Identify factors team must achieve to remain viable & productive & develop

  • Formal tools

    - SWOT analysis

    - Delphi research technique

    (MacKenzie, 1998)


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ELEMENTS OF TRUST

  • Commitment

    - make decisions on what is right rather than self-interest

    - commit to something more than self


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ELEMENTS OF TRUST

  • Familiarity

    - When we know someone/ or something well enough

    - Personal relationships

    - Trust based on how we are treated

  • Personal responsibility

    - Take responsibility for actions


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ELEMENTS OF TRUST CONT…

  • Integrity

    - Honesty

    - Self-awareness

    • know you who you are

      - Lack of self-confidence indicates

    • criticize others

    • do most of talking

    • decisions on what boss wants

    • worry who gets credit


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ELEMENTS OF TRUST CONT…

  • Consistency

    - walk the talk

    - predictability of behaviour

  • Communication

    - open communication

    - unwilling to deal with sensitive/difficult issues

    - share perceptions & listen


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ELEMENTS OF TRUST CONT…

  • Forgiveness & reconciliation

  • Essence of trust

    - spiritual & requires faith

    - what is acceptable when we are at home versus at work

    (Annison & Wilford, 1998)


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FIVE PRACTICES OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP

EACH PRACTICE CAN BE TESTED, LEARNED & TAUGHT


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Leadership Practices Inventory

  • Challenge the process

  • Inspire a shared vision

  • Enable others to act

  • Model the way

  • Encourage the heart

    (Kouzes & Posner, 1988)


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COMPETENCIES FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP

  • Management of Attention

    - having a vision

    - outcomes/goals

  • Management of Trust


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COMPETENCIES FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP CONT…

  • Management of Meaning

    - creating a social culture, know expectations

    - bonding

  • Management of Self

    - know one’s own skills & lack thereof

    - professional development


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Case Study…transformational leadership in action

Implementation

in the

Nursing Saudization Department


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Steps in Transformational Process

  • Clarify responsibility & accountability

  • Identify & agree on responsibilities in Department

  • Continuous consultation & support of staff

  • Continuous update & feedback


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Steps in Transformational Process

  • Two Saudi Clinical Educators, one Western Education Coordinator

  • Ongoing evaluations

  • Acknowledgement

  • Celebration of achievements

  • Satisfied Saudi & non-Saudi nurses

  • Protection & motivation of staff in Department: improvedquality of nursing practice


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SUMMARY

Transformational values & competencies are critical to support leadership in KSA & world wide

Current Saudi nursing workforce is young & oftentimes inexperienced

Without competent leaders, the workforce relies heavily on expatriates


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SUMMARY cont…

It is thus imperative that senior managers and leaders including nurses, mentor Saudi nurses into positions of leadership.


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

  • To all the nurses who continuously inspire me to leave a legacy

  • To all my Saudi nurses

  • To all my mentors & educators

    Shukran!!


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