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  1. Movies Mass-Producing Entertainment

  2. The Development of Movies • The First Movie Makers • Etienne-Jules Marey: • trained in medicine • wanted to capture movement of blood and heart, and animal movement • developed system for taking repeated photos of people and animals in motion

  3. Eadweard Muybridge: • wanted to capture the motion of animals on film • hired to settle a the bet on whether a galloping horse ever had all four hooves off the ground • published Animal Locomotion • Thomas Edison: • kinetoscope—peepshow-like device that played movies • May 9, 1893—made a thirty-second film called “Blacksmith Scene” • Nickelodeons—early screen projection theaters that replaced the kinetoscopes

  4. First Movies • •

  5. Auguste-Marie and Louis-Jean Lumiere: • French filmmakers who were brothers • Cinematographe - a portable movie camera that could also be used as a projector • set standards for speed and format of film • • Georges Melies: • A Trip to the Moon • utilized special effects

  6. Edwin S. Porter: • worked for Edison • The Great Train Robbery (1903) • incorporated twelve separate scenes shot in various locations • began the idea of movie effects •

  7. D. W. Griffith: • The Birth of a Nation (1915) • ran for over three hours, cost more than $110,000 • controversial film about the birth of the Ku Klux Klan • Intolerance • cost nearly $500,000 • financial failure • outside financial backing became necessary •

  8. The Studio System • Industry moved from New York and New Jersey to Southern California to take advantage of: • cheap real estate • good weather, diverse shooting locations (ocean, mountains, desert) • Studio System—factory-like way of producing movies, all talent worked directly for the studios • Movie distribution schemes • block booking—bundles of movies that theater owners were forced to purchase, without preview • studios purchased theaters (vertical integration)

  9. United Artists: • rebellion of popular performers and directors • acquired and distributed independent movies • model for the modern movie studio: • not a maker, but a financer and distributor of films

  10. Talking Pictures • The Jazz Singer (1927): • silent film with two talking segments • talkie—movie with synchronized sound • Don Juan (1926): • synchronized soundtrack—movie sound that synchronized voices with the pictures •

  11. Problems with early sound films: • stars had to be able to speak and act at same time • theaters had to upgrade equipment • camera equipment was noisy • picked up set noise

  12. The End of the Studio System • 1938—U.S. Department of Justice looking into the studios’ monopoly • investigated Paramount Pictures first: • results of investigation: • Theater owners allowed to preview movies • Block booking limited to 5 movies • breakup complete in 1948: • Supreme Court forced studios to sell theaters

  13. The Blacklist • House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) (1947) • Investigated communism in Hollywood • Hollywood Ten: • refused to testify • found in contempt, jailed, blacklisted • 1953—blacklist contained 324 names

  14. Television and the Movies • 1946 movie audiences peaked; sales of 80 million tickets per week: • by 1953, 46 million per week • Larger-Than-Life Movies to compete: • bigger and better theaters • 3-D movies • epics like The Ten Commandments and Spartacus • Television forced movies to convert to color • Growth of multiplexes

  15. The Movie Business • The Blockbuster Era • Jaws (1975): • first movie to gross more than $200 million • good direction and music score • based on a popular novel • giant television advertising campaign • summer release—coincided with beach and swimming season •

  16. Home Video • 1994—over 85 percent of all U.S. homes had a VCR • 2006—81 percent had a DVD player, 79 percent had VCRs • The Incredibles —$261 million in theater, $368 million in DVD sales • opened up a world of older movies to today’s audiences

  17. Going Digital • Star Wars: • George Lucas used a computer-controlled camera to shoot the space battle scenes • Star Wars Episode II—first big-budget feature to be shot entirely using high definition video • • technology allows for cheaper production • What Makes a Movie Profitable? • profits based on costs of production and promotion

  18. Movies and Society How Much Influence Do Movies Have? • It Happened One Night: • Sale of undershirts plummet because of Clark Gable scene • • The Payne Fund: • series of thirteen studies • found repeating themes • three-fourths of all movies dealt with crime, sex, or love • high level of recall • novelty and discussion that stimulated recall

  19. Herbert Blumer • examined how young people thought they had been affected by movies • imitating the behaviors • copying the actions in their games and play • saw movies as a source of ideas about action, romance, and standards of beauty • in essence, learning how to behave as an adult

  20. The Program: • main character performed extreme stunts • eighteen-year-old boy killed in Pennsylvania, supposedly recreating a dangerous stunt • Touchstone Pictures reacted, as did Janet Reno, then attorney general • investigationdetermined that young people were doing the stunt years before the release of the movie

  21. Hurray for Bollywood: India’s Movie Industry • Mumbai, India—produces more than 1,000 films/year • Masala, or “spice,” movies • feature several musical numbers, a strong male hero, a coy heroine, and an obvious villain • can have up to ten storylines • have not reached U.S. audiences

  22. The Production Code: Protecting the Movies from Censorship • Theater owners formed the National Board of Censorship (1909): • establish a national standard for movies • prostitution, childbirth, drug use all on banned list • stars’ off-screen behavior seen as equally offensive • Hollywood viewed as a mass of “wild orgies,” “dope parties, “kept men,” and “kept women.”

  23. The Birth of the Production Code • set of morality guidelines passed in 1927 • Will H. Hays: • named president of the MPPDA • The Code controlled movie content from the 1930s until1968: • evil not be made to look alluring • villains and law breakers not go unpunished • no profanity or blasphemy • passion needed to be handled carefully

  24. The Ratings System • Jack Valenti, MPAA President: • scrapped Production Code in 1968 • Ratings assigned by a panel of twelve parents • Screen and discuss three movies a day • G: General audiences. All ages admitted • PG: Parental guidance suggested • PG-13: Parents strongly cautioned • R: Restricted. Under 17 must be accompanied by adult • NC-17: No one under age 17 will be admitted

  25. Certain content prompts particular ratings: • drug use requires at least a PG-13 • sexually oriented nudity results in an R • rough and persistent violence requires an R • one use of the “F-word” requires a PG-13 • If used more than once or in a sexual sense, movies is rated R • • Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom

  26. The X Problem: • MPAA did not trademark the X rating. • Porn industry began labeling its unrated films XXX: • if X was adult, XXX would be really adult • Midnight Cowboy: • first and only X-rated movie to win an Oscar for Best Picture • rating eventually changed to R, after award • Saving Private Ryan rating debate • graphic depiction of Normandy landing troublesome to some

  27. The Future of Movies • 2005—U.S. box office down by 6 percent from 2004 • first decline since 1991 • too many sequels and remakes • 1980s—50 percent of revenue came from ticket sales • by 1995 fallen below 15 percent • ancillary or secondary markets—movie revenue sources other than the domestic box office • home video, toys, clothes, television rights, product placement, etc.

  28. Movie Promotion on the Internet • The Blair Witch Project: • sold to Artisan Entertainment for $1.1 million • low-cost promotion mirrored production style: • mock documentary on cable television • “creepy” website • handlettered posters looked like “missing” posters • garnered $50 million in first week of national release

  29. Movies and the Long Tail • increased exposure for lesser-known films • digital downloads • ability to get information on non-blockbuster films