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Chapter 11 Corrections: History, Institutions, and Populations PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 11 Corrections: History, Institutions, and Populations

Chapter 11 Corrections: History, Institutions, and Populations

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Chapter 11 Corrections: History, Institutions, and Populations

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  1. Chapter 11Corrections: History, Institutions, and Populations

  2. Learning Objectives • Identify the components of the correctional institution system. • Discuss some of the most significant problems facing the correctional system. • Articulate how the first penal institutions developed in Europe. • Explain how William Penn revolutionized corrections. • Compare the New York and Pennsylvania prison models. • Chart the development of penal reform. • List the purpose of jails and know about jail populations. • Be familiar with the term “new generation jail” • Classify the different types of federal and state penal institutions. • Discuss prison population trends.

  3. History of Correctional Institutions • 1557 Bridewell workhouse built to hold those convicted of relatively minor offenses • Incarceration did not become the norm until 19th century • 10th century England prisons used to detain debtors, unemployed, or those awaiting trial • First penal institutions were devoid of proper care, food, or medical treatment

  4. The Origin of Corrections in the United States • Modern American correctional system had its origin in Pennsylvania under leadership of William Penn • Quaker influence

  5. The Auburn System • Tier system • Congregate system • Three classes of prisoners were created: • Those in solitary • Those allowed labor as a form of recreation • Those who worked and ate together during the day and separated at night

  6. The Pennsylvania System • Each inmate in a single cell • Classifications were abolished because isolation would prevent inmates from contaminating each other • Built in a circle with cells placed along its circumference • Penance

  7. Auburn vs. Pennsylvania System

  8. Corrections in the 19th Century • Similar to today • Development of prison industry: • Contract system • Convict-lease system • Prison farms

  9. Development of Parole • Transportation common sentence for theft offenders • Service abandoned after revolution • Ticket of leave • Zebulon Brockway

  10. Prisons in the 20th Century • Time of contrast in the U.S. prison system • Advocate of reform, rehabilitation, education, religion • Development of specialized prisons • Industrial prisons for hard-core inmates • Agricultural prisons for non dangerous offenders • Institutions for criminally insane • Opposition by organized labor restricts the use of prison labor and sale of prison made goods

  11. Contemporary Correctional Institutions • Prisoners’ rights movement • Violence within the corrections system a national concern • Traditional correctional rehabilitation efforts viewed as having failed prompted reconsideration of incapacitating criminals

  12. Jails • Detain accused offenders who cannot make bail • Hold convicted offenders awaiting sentence • Confinement for those convicted of misdemeanors • Hold probationers and parolees arrested for violations and waiting for a hearing • House felons when state prisons are overcrowded

  13. Jail Populations by Race and Ethnicity, 1990-2008 1,000 Black 750 Number of jail inmates per 100,000 U.S. residents 500 Hispanic 250 White 0 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 Year

  14. Jail Population by Gender, 1990-2008 Adult males 600,000 Number of jail inmates (one-day count) 400,000 200,000 Adult females Juveniles 0 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 Year

  15. Jail Conditions • Services not sufficiently regulated • No unified national policy on what constitutes adequate conditions • Among the most dilapidated and under funded confinement facilities in the U.S.

  16. New Generation Jails • Use of pods or living areas rather than linear/intermittent surveillance model • Allows for continuous observation • Safer environment

  17. Types of Prison

  18. Alternative Correctional Institutions • Prison farms and camps • Shock incarceration in boot camps • Community correctional facilities • Private prisons

  19. Prison Farms and Camps • Primarily in the South and the West • Some famous for abuse and mistreatment of prisoners

  20. Shock Incarceration in Boot Camps • For youthful, first-time offenders • Military discipline and physical training • Scared straight • Some have educational and training elements • Cost is no lower than traditional incarceration • High failure rates • Reduce prison overcrowding

  21. Community Correctional Facilities • Bridge gap between institutional living and community • Offer specialized treatment • Used as intermediate sanction

  22. Private Prisons • Operated by private firms as business enterprises for profit • Expectations specified in contract with government • Some research shows recidivism rates lower • Tend to take the best prisoners • Private and public prisons cost about the same to operate, but privates are cheaper to build • Unresolved legal issues: mistreatment of prisoners, use of deadly force, immunity from lawsuits • Effects on inmates: sent far from home, isolation, difficulty of reintegration

  23. Inmate Populations • Reflects common traits of arrestees held in local jails • Young, single, poorly educated, male, and minority group members. • Number of women incarcerated is increasing at a faster rate than males • Many inmates suffer from multiple social, psychological, emotional, and health problems • Prison populations continue to increase despite a decade long drop in the crime rate

  24. Growth Trends • New admissions for drug offenses • Mandatory sentences • Truth in sentencing laws • Policy decisions driven by political concerns

  25. Incarceration Rates 600 500 400 Number of offendersper 100,000 population 300 200 100 0 1980 1989 1998 2007 Year

  26. Future Trends • Population may be maxing out • Budget cutbacks may halt expansion • Public may question strict incarceration