U.S. History Top 100 What every student should know to pass the U.S. History EOC. Goals 1-12
Goal 1: The New Nation (1789-1820) • The learner will identify, investigate, and assess the effectiveness of the institutions of the emerging republic.
Who could vote? White males who owned property. Who could not vote? White males who did not own property Women African-Americans Native Americans Suffrage during the Federalist Era
XYZ Affair, 1797 • The American delegates told the French expected a bribe in order to meet with them.
Marbury v. Madison, 1803 • This case established the Supreme Court's right to judicial review.
Alien & Sedition Acts, 1798 • The Alien Act made it longer to become a citizen. • The Sedition Act made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government. • The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions opposed these laws and initiated the concept of "nullification“.
Louisiana Purchase, 1803 • from France for $15 million. • The Constitution did not give the federal government the power to buy land, so Jefferson used loose interpretation to justify the purchase.
Democratic Republicans Thomas Jefferson states should have more power Farming pro-French strict construction of the Constitution Federalists Led by Alexander Hamilton Favored strong central government industry and trade pro-British a loose construction of the Constitution Development of the two-party system
Whiskey Rebellion, 1794 • Farmers rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey. • The army put down the rebellion. • government would strongly enforce its laws
Washington’s Farewell Address, 1796 • Warned against competing political parties • Warned against complicated entanglements (alliances) of Europe
Goal 2: Expansion and Reform (1801-1850) • The learner will assess the competing forces of expansionism, nationalism, and sectionalism.
Missouri Compromise, 1820 • Missouri as a slave state • Maine as a free state. • territory north of 36°30" would become free states, and south would become slave states.
Indian Removal, 1838-1839 • Moved to Oklahoma • The journey became known as the "Trail of Tears".
Hudson River School of Art • painted American landscapes.
Eli Whitney and the Cotton Gin • 1798 - separate cotton from its seeds. • made cotton a profitable crop. • reinforced slavery in the economy of the South.
Nativism • An anti-foreign • 1840's and 1850's in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics.
Henry Clay • Clay helped heal the North/South rift by aiding passage of the Compromise of 1850.
Tariff of Abominations • protected the North • harmed the South • South said that the tariff was unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.
Monroe Doctrine, 1823 • Europe should not interfere in the Western Hemisphere • a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until the late 1800s.
Women’s Reform Movement • Seneca Falls, NY Convention • Declaration of Rights and Sentiments
Goal 3: Crisis, Civil War and Reconstruction (1848-1877) • The learner will analyze the issues that led to the Civil War, the effects of the war, and the impact of Reconstruction on the nation.
Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 • Popular sovereignty (vote of the people) would determine whether Kansas and Nebraska would be slave or free states.
Dred Scott v. Sanford, 1857 • sued for his freedom • The U.S. Supreme Court decided he could not sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Compromise of 1850 • Admitted California as a free state • Organized Utah and N.M. without restrictions on slavery • Abolished slave trade in D.C. • Established tougher fugitive slave laws. .
Causes of Secession, 1860 • After Lincoln was elected, seven Southern states seceded. • South said he was a President “whose opinions and purposes are hostile to slavery.”
Battle of Gettysburg, 1863 • lasted three days and the North won • Considered a turning point of the Civil War.
Emancipation Proclamation, 1862 • freed all slaves in states still in rebellion
Presidential Plans Lincoln and Johnson’s plans were leniant for the South Congressional Plan “Radical Republicans” wanted to force changes in south (three amendments, military control) Reconstruction Plans
Compromise of 1877 • Hayes promised to end Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting his election results. He took Union troops out of the South.
Civil War Amendments • 13th - slavery • 14th - citizenship • 15th - vote
Civil Rights Act of 1866 • Prohibited abridgement of rights of blacks or any other citizens.
Goal 4: The Great West and the Rise of the Debtor (1860-1896) • The learner will evaluate the great westward movement and assess the impact of the agricultural revolution on the nation.
Helen Hunt Jackson • A muckraker whose book exposed the unjust manner in which the U.S. government had treated the Indians. Protested the Dawes Severalty Act.
Government Incentives Pacific Railway Acts Morrill Land-Grant Act Homestead Act Miners-49ers Cattle ranchers Farmers Motivation for Westward Movement
Challenges of Westward Movement • Lack of resources; wood and water • Severe weather, bugs, floods, prairie fires, dust storms, drought • Conflicts with Native Americans
Transcontinental Railroad, 1869 • Connect east and west
Dawes Act, 1887 • It tried to dissolve Indian tribes by giving land to individuals • Assimilation policy
Cross of Gold Speech, 1896 • William Jennings Bryan • said people must not be "crucified on a cross of gold“
Improvements in Agriculture • Mechanized reaper – reduced labor force • Steel plow – cut through dense sod • Barbed wire – end of open range • Windmills – powers irrigation systems
Goal 5: Becoming an Industrial Society (1877-1900) • The learner will describe innovations in technology and business practices and assess their impact on economic, political, and social life in America.
Jacob Riis • Early 1900's writer who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. Muckraker novel.
Jane Addams’ Hull House, 1889 • founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S. • Assisted the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.
Gospel of Wealth, 1889 • Andrew Carnegie was an American millionaire and philanthropist who donated large sums of money for public works. • His book argued that the wealthy have an obligation to give something back to society.
Social Darwinism • Applied Darwin's theory of natural selection and "survival of the fittest" to human society -- the poor are poor because they are not as fit to survive. • Used as an argument against social reforms to help the poor.
Influence of Big Business • Business control over government
Laissez-faire • A theory that the economy does better without government intervention in business.
Knights of Labor noted as the first union of all workers. American Federation of Labor It is a federation of different unions. Labor Unions
Labor Practices • Collective Bargaining - Discussions held between workers and their employers over wages, hours, and conditions. • Labor Unions – organization of workers • Strikes – refusal to perform work until demands are met.
Thomas Nast • Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, • invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.
Credit Mobilier Scandal, 1872 • Union Pacific received a government contract to build the transcontinental railroad • It "hired" Credit Mobilier to do the actual construction, charging nearly twice the actual cost of the project. • The scheme was discovered and the company tried to bribe Congress with gifts of stock to stop the investigation. • This was the biggest bribery scandal in U.S. history, and led to greater public awareness of government corruption.