Introduction to GIS. Longley et al. (2001), GISystems and Science , Ch 1. Data – numbers, text, symbols Sea surface temperature, soil type, population density Information – differentiated from data implying some degree of selection, organization, and preparation for particular purpose, or
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Longley et al. (2001), GISystems and Science, Ch 1
Sea surface temperature, soil type, population density
Information – differentiated from data
implying some degree of selection, organization, and preparation for particular purpose, or
data given some degree of interpretation
(map, digital form)
Information about places on Earth’s surface
Geographic versus spatial
Geographic refers to Earth’s surface and near surface
Spatial refers to any space (more general)
Knowledge about where something is
Knowledge about what is at a given location
Can be very detailed or very course
Can be relatively static or change rapidly
Can be very sparse or voluminousOpening Definitions
GIS stands for “Geographic Information Systems”
Two distinct meanings of the question “Is this a GIS?”
GIS hardware like any other computer with perhaps some extra components. Like?
What is important is the kind of information that’s stored.
In addition, a GIS includes tools to do things with this information.
ESRI – http://www.esri.com
Intergraph – http://www.intergraph.com
Autodesk – http://www.autodesk.com
Clark Labs – http://www.clarklabs.org
Why go to all this trouble and expense?
Who needs to know what is where?
Few of the most important uses:
“Almost everything that happens, happens somewhere. Knowing where something happens is critically important.”
Longley et al. (2001, 6)
Because location is so important, it is an issue in many of the problems society much solve
Problems that involve an aspect of location
Classifying geographic problems
What’s the “S” in GIS
Wright, Dawn J., Michael F. Goodchild, and James D. Proctor. 1997. GIS: Tool or Science? Annuals of the Association of American Geographers, 87(2): 346-362.
Term coined in a paper by Goodchild (1992)
Goodchild, Michael F. 1992. Geographic Information Science. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 6:31-45.
Studies the fundamental issues arising from geographic information; body of knowledge that GISystems implement and exploit
Other terms meaning same as GIScience
Evolved significantly over the past 10 years
In 1996, UCGIS institutions held an assembly to identify the most important research topics
UCGIS> Priorities > Research > 2002 Research Agenda