T U T O R I A L Expository Writing Crews WMC English
Expository WritingContents Part 1. Introduction to Expository Writing Part 2. Ideas & Content Part 3. Organization Part 4. Voice & Tone Part 5. Word Choice Part 6. Sentence Fluency Part 7. Conventions Contents of Expository Writing Tutorial correlate with the English Writing Rubric found on website
Expository WritingThe Writing Process Most great writers are not hatched from eggs! Your growth and development as a writer is a process. DEVELOPMENT Essay #4 Essay #3 Essay #2 Essay #1 TIME Process suggests Practice
Expository WritingMaking an Argument Dictionary.com: expository • of the nature of exposition; serving to expound, set forth, or explain: an expository essay; expository writing • A statement or rhetorical discourse intended to give information about or an explanation of difficult material • An act or example of exposing Exposing = Evidence
Expository WritingWriting Mantra Dictionary.com: mantra • a word or formula, as from the Veda (Hinduism), chanted or sung as an incantation or prayer "Never confuse the reader"
Expository WritingEssay Guidelines • Include heading (name, teacher, class, date), title, and page numbers (with last name top right) • All text should be Double-spaced, size 12 Font (black) • 1” margins around the page • No more than three pages • Indent new paragraphs, right justify text
Expository WritingResources • MLA Citation: (WMCHS.org Library Media Center Citations) • Writing Handouts: (Assessment/ Rubric) • This presentation: Expository Writing Tutorial (WMRFH.org/dcrews Writing Center) • Synonyms, Antonyms, and Definitions: (www.dictionary.com) • Purdue University Online Writing Center: (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/ )
Expository WritingReview of the Writing Process DEVELOPMENT Essay #4 Essay #3 Essay #2 Essay #1 TIME What you should know
States an opinion Clarifies an argument… ‘Why?’ Notice the Action Verbs! Expository WritingThe Nature of the Thesis Statement A Midsummer Night’s Dream is an entertaining play. Shakespeare’s literary work is a story of love, which is accentuated by images of magic and dreams. Summary A Midsummer Night’s Dreamexhibits Shakespeare’s literary brilliance. However, in order to truly appreciate the play as a whole, one must experience the visual elements incorporated in drama. “My paper is clear and focused…” Making an Argument
Expository WritingSupporting the Argument Every detail provided in an expository piece should in some way, shape, or form. . . support the argument. “I rely on knowledge and experience and develop the topic in an enlightening way that makes a point or tells a story. Every piece adds something to the whole…” What is the need for Evidence? Ezra Pound (ABC of Reading): “Any general statement is like a cheque drawn on a bank. Its value depends on what is there to meet it.”
When alerting your reader to “key word analysis,” simply put those words or phrases (in quotes) directly into your writing What do you notice? Expository WritingAnalysis in the Text Richard attempts to personally address the challenges associated with racism: Culturally the Negro represents a paradox: Though he is an organic part of the nation, he is excluded by the entire tide and direction of American culture. . .The essence of the irony of the plight of the Negro in America, [according to Richard], is that he is doomed to live in isolation while those who condemn him seek the basest goals of any people on the face of the earth (272-73). Richard draws attention to the “plight of the Negro.” He sees the paradoxical nature of a society that states all men are created equal, yet “excludes” some from the “tide ofAmerican culture.” This “isolation” causes Richard to find himself through literature and language. “I do a lot of showing and very little telling…” Ideas & Content
Expository WritingAlmost Done…! • Edit the Essay! (read aloud, etc.) • Spellcheck! Your essay is complete… what next? Great Writing is... ReWriting
Write a critique. . . • Provide an argument; assert an opinion: answer the question • Provide the ‘Why?’: link to the literature • Explore evidence to support the argument: link to the literature Analysis: Find key words or phrases and discuss their significance Expository WritingPre-writing and Planning 1. Read through assignment and expectations (find key words and phrases to manage your expectations!) 2. Create an argument 3. Find support and evidence 4. Organize ideas 5. Write! Great writers... organize
A wise man once said, a story is the shortest distance between the truth and the human heart. In life, people often times will face challenges [oppression]. Expository WritingStructure of an Introduction 1. Hook (General or universal, easy to understand, creates anticipation) 2. Build-up to argument (Good rule of thumb to reference title, author) 3. Argument (See next slide) 4. Anticipation #1 #2 #3 Lead the Reader
What would be a logical sequencing for the body paragraphs? When organizing, choose a variable that means something to the reader Expository WritingProper Organization A Midsummer Night’s Dream exhibits Shakespeare’s literary brilliance. However, in order to truly appreciate the play as a whole, one must experience the visual elements incorporated in drama. At three moments during the play this challenge becomes a vivid reality: the opening scene, the artisans’ play in the wood, and the finale at the Court of Athens. 1 2 3 “My details fit where they are placed; sequencing is logical and effective…” Sequencing should be logical
Expository Writing“C+” Transitions • To compare to • Firstly • Secondly • Thirdly • Additionally • Fundamentally • Initially • In conclusion • Therefore • To begin with • In addition to • Furthermore • However • As a result • Moreover • In contrast A Writer's Progress
Expository Writing“Deep Structure” Transitions How to Include: Simply underline the first and last line of each paragraph. Examine whether you connect an idea, carry down a word or synonym, or support the argument. • Connect an idea or concept • Carry down a word or synonym • Support the argument What's the purpose of TRANSITIONS?
Expository Writing“Deep Structure” Transitions The novel, Black Boy, exemplifies a young man who struggles with finding himself. Richard’s developing sense of self emerges once he finds an acceptable outlet for his strong emotions. This release defines Richard’s artistic self—and the catharsis of writing allows him to overcome racial and cultural discrimination. The greatest challenge Richard faces in his search for identity is the rampant racism present in his childhood. “Thoughtful deep structure transitions clearly show how ideas connect…” Organization
Expository WritingEditing for “Deep Structure” Transitions How to Edit: Simply underline the first and last line of each paragraph. Examine whether you connect an idea, carry down a word or synonym, or support the argument. • Connect an idea or concept • Carry down a word or synonym • Support the argument Think about Flow
Is he tall, is she short? Does he have brown hair; does she have blonde hair? Does he like dogs; what is her favorite color? How many times a week does he go to the movies; does she like ice cream? Does he like going to the beach; is she an outdoors kind of gal? What was I planning to do today? I wonder if my friends are going to the mall this weekend. What should I get Dad for his birthday? Wow, I have a lot of stuff to do this afternoon! Expository WritingVoice & Tone It has been said that in formal writing it is never appropriate to address the audience (“you”) or the writer (“I”)… but why? • When you mention “I”, what does the reader begin to think about…? • When you mention “you”, what does the reader begin to think about…? “I speak directly to the reader with an expressive engaging voice and am sensitive to the needs of the audience; however, I do not use the words I or you…” Do not confuse the reader
When introducing quotation into your writing. . . 1.) Use a “,” [comma] after a standard dialogue tag, a brief introductory phrase, or a dependent clause 2.) Use a “:” [colon] after an independent clause Expository WritingIntroducing the Quote After Egeus refused to allow Lysander to marry his daughter, Lysander exclaimed: “The course of true love never did run smooth / But either it was different in blood—” (I.1.136). In a dozen words (or fewer) briefly explain the plot that leads up to the quotation. “My writing reflects a commitment to the topic and an effort to bring the topic to life…” Setup the reader
When introducing quotation into your writing. . . 1.) Use a “,” [comma] after a standard dialogue tag, a brief introductory phrase, or a dependent clause 2.) Use a “:” [colon] after an independent clause Expository WritingIntroducing a Passage Richard attempts to personally address the challenges associated with racism: “Culturally the Negro represents a paradox: Though he is an organic part of the nation, he is excluded by the entire tide and direction of American culture” (272). In a dozen words (or fewer) briefly explain the plot that leads up to the quotation. “My writing reflects a commitment to the topic and an effort to bring the topic to life…” Voice & Tone
Expository WritingSaying Things Without Saying Things “This quote shows. . .” “The author says. . .” “The text explains . . .” “The key words here. . .” “The theme is. . .” “My voice emerges on occasion, but then retreats behind dispassionate language… I have done a great deal of telling and very little showing…” Diction is word choice
Expository WritingClarity in Writing Think about an apple. . . How many words can be used to describe this piece of fruit? Word Choice
Expository WritingClarity in Writing Think about. . . • The idea being conveyed • The context of the writing 3. The audience “I am sensitive to the needs of the audience... My words are specific and accurate… Precise nouns and modifiers create pictures in the minds of the audience. Striking words and phrases catch the eyes of the audience and linger in the minds of readers… Word Choice
Be–verb (used without object) to exist or live: Shakespeare's “To be or not to be” is the ultimate question. to take place; happen; occur: The wedding was last week. to occupy a place or position: The book is on the table. to continue or remain as before: Let things be. to belong; attend; befall: May good fortune be with you.to equal in meaning : have the same connotation as : SYMBOLIZE <God is love> <January is the first month> to have identity with <the first person I met was my brother> to constitute the same class as to have a specified qualification or characterization <the leaves are green> to have an objective existence : have reality or actuality : LIVE <I think, therefore I am>to have, maintain, or occupy a place, situation, or position <the book is on the table> to remain untouched, undisturbed, or uninterrupted -- used only in infinitive form <let him be> to take place : OCCUR <the concert was last night> to come or go <has already been and gone> Have–verb (used with object) to hold or maintain as a possession, privilege, or entitlement <they have a new car> to hold in one's use, service, regard, or at one's disposal <the group will have enough tickets for everyone> to feel obligation in regard to -- usually used with an infinitive with to <we have things to do> to stand in a certain relationship to <has three fine children> to acquire or get possession of : OBTAIN<these shoes are the best to be had> : RECEIVE <had news> : ACCEPT; specifically : to accept in marriage to be marked or characterized by (a quality, attribute, or faculty) <both have red hair> to experience especially by submitting to, undergoing, or suffering <I have a cold> to make the effort to perform (an action) or engage in (an activity) <have a look at that cut> to entertain in the mind <have an opinion> to cause or command to do something -- used with the infinitive without to <have the children stay> cause to be in a certain place or state <has people around at all times> ALLOW <we'll have no more of that>to be competent in <has only a little French> to hold in a position of disadvantage or certain defeat <we have him now> to take advantage of : TRICK, FOOL<been had by a partner> BEGET, BEAR <have a baby> to partake of <have dinner> BRIBE, SUBORN <can be had for a price> Vague Verbs! 38 definitions! 15 definitions! Expository WritingVague Verbs is “My verbs do not always capture the precise meaning…” have Never confuse the reader
Create a simple sentence by adding a noun and completing the predicate Something anything Books information Expository WritingAction Verbs! E.g. _____________ is _____________. E.g. _____________ reveal _____________. “My words are specific and accurate; it is easy to understand what I mean. . . Lively verbs energize my writing…” Diction is word choice
Expository WritingEditing for “Vague Verbs” How to Edit: Simply box all uses of the verbs “to be” or “to have” Examine whether the verb is truly necessary or if there is an action verb that could be used. • To be (“is,” “are”) • To have (“have,” “has”) Verbs = Action
Expository WritingSubstitution for Common Vague Verbs has/ have do hurt is/ are broadens exhibits exemplifies expresses informs adjusts distributes enhances mimics possesses acquires completes emulates facilitates instructs bamboozles devours humiliates ransacks shatters go (went) look say show bolts crawls flies meanders races calculates examines glances peers stares accepts appraises asserts assigns delegates applies displays emphasizes fosters identifies Action Verbs!
Expository WritingSentence Fluency See Dick run. See Jane run. See Dick and Jane run. See Spot run. See Spot run with Dick and Jane. Spot runs quickly. Spot runs faster than Dick and Jane. This writing is lame. This writing is boring. There is little variation to my sentencefluency. What is Sentence Fluency?
Expository WritingSentence Fluency “Well-built sentences, with strong and varied structure, invite expressive oral reading. My sentence structures are grammatically correct and help make meaning clear. Purposeful beginnings show how each sentence relates to and builds upon the one before it. My sentences vary in length as well as structure. Fragments, if used, add style. My dialogue sounds natural.” As per the English Writing Assessment (rubric): Key words?
The EIGHT Parts of Speech Expository WritingThe Eight Parts of Speech ADJECTIVE Modifies nouns and pronouns NOUN Person, place, thing or idea VERB Indicates action PRONOUN Represent nouns ADVERB Modifies verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs INTERJECTION Expresses emotion or serves a purpose independent of the sentence CONJUNCTION Connects other words, phrases, of clauses PREPOSITION Indicates relationship between words and phrases
Find the nouns; find the verbs Find the nouns; find the verbs To find the subject, locate the verb—subjects complete the action of the verb What is a NOUN CLAUSE? Does it live at the North Pole? Noun Clause Nouns Verb Verb Expository WritingNoun Clauses E.g. The burrito gave me heartburn. E.g. What I had for lunch gave me heartburn. Sentence=Subject+Predicate
Expository WritingNoun Clauses – Dependent Signals • What • When • Whenever • Where • Wherever • Why • Whether • Who • Whom • Whose • Whoever • Which • How • That if • Notice Any question where the answer is a noun
Find the adjective(s) Find the adjective clause Adjective Clause Adjectives and adjective clauses both modify nouns and pronouns What is an ADJECTIVE CLAUSE? Is it fat and jolly and have a white beard? Adjective Expository WritingAdjective Clauses E.g. Purposeful students understand adjectives. E.g. Students who are purposeful understand adjectives Be Descriptive!
Expository WritingAdjective Clauses – Dependent Signals • Who • Whom • Whose • Which • That Note: Some of the dependent signals for adjective clauses are also dependent signals for noun clauses. Relative Pronouns
What is an ADVERBIAL CLAUSE? Does it bring you presents in December? This is a perfectly correct sentence, but it doesn’t quite tell us everything we need to know. . . Expository WritingAdverbial Clauses E.g. English teachers are boring, and they need love. Because English teachers are boring, they need love. Eventhough English teachers are boring, they need love. English teachers need love after feeling boring. English teachers need love while they are being boring. Clarify your thoughts
Find the adverbial clause Adverbial Clause Adverbial clauses modify action and various descriptions of action Expository WritingAdverbial Clauses E.g. English teachers are boring, and they need love. E.g. Even though English teachers are boring, they need love. Clarify & Explain
Expository WritingAdverbial Clauses – Dependent Signals • When? • Where? • Why? • To what degree? • Under what circumstances? Adverbial clauses answer the following questions: Adverbs connected to Action
How do you edit for dynamic SENTENCE FLUENCY? Expository WritingEditing for Sentence Fluency How to Edit: Circle the first word of each sentence Examine whether sentence structures are similar,redundant, or simple “Well-built sentences with strong and varied structure, invite expressive oral reading. Purposeful beginnings show how each sentence relates to and builds upon the one before it…” “Sentences are not artfully crafted but grammatical most of the time. There is some variation to length and structure. My sentence beginnings sound familiar…” Goal: Work clauses into your writing
Expository WritingWord Choice & Sentence Fluency Great Writing is. . . Re-Writing!
Expository WritingAgreements and Tense Common grammatical errors: • Sentence Fragment • Run-on Sentence • Verb-Subject Agreement • Pronoun-Subject Agreement • Pronoun-Pronoun Agreement • Shift in Verb Tense “Sentences are choppy, incomplete, rambling or awkward. Phrasing does not sound natural—the way someone might speak. . . My verbs do not always capture the precise meaning, or sometimes shift tense. . .It is difficult to sense the writer behind the words. . .”
Expository WritingErrors in Sentence Structure Sentence Fragment – A clause written as a sentence but lacking an element—as a subject (noun or pronoun) or a predicate (verb) or a complete thought E.g. To Kill a Mockingbird, addressing the importance of morality. Run-on Sentence – A written sequence of two or more main clauses that are not separated by a period or semicolon or joined by a conjunction E.g. A person’s morality is important to living a life of happiness often times, they may not recognize their moral actions at work around them.