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Energy: Forms and Changes

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  1. Energy: Forms and Changes

  2. Nature of Energy • Energy is all around you! • You can hear energy as sound. • You can see energy as light. • And you can feel it as wind.

  3. Nature of Energy Energy is the ability to do work or bring about change.

  4. Nature of Energy • What is energy that it can be involved in so many different activities? • Energy can be defined as the ability to do work. • If an object or organism does work (exerts a force over a distance to move an object) the object or organism uses energy.

  5. Nature of Energy • Because of the direct connection between energy and work, energy is measured in the same unit as work: joules (J). • In addition to using energy to do work, objects gain energy because work is being done on them.

  6. Forms of Energy • The five main forms of energy are: • Thermal • Chemical • Electromagnetic • Nuclear • Mechanical

  7. Heat Energy • The molecular motion of the atoms is called thermal energy, because moving particles produce heat. • Thermal energy can be produced by friction. • Thermal energy causes changes in temperature and phase of any form of matter.

  8. Chemical Energy • Chemical energy is required to bond atoms together. • And when bonds are broken, energy is released.

  9. Chemical Energy • Fuel and food are forms of stored chemical energy.

  10. Electromagnetic Energy • Power lines carry electromagnetic energy into your home in the form of electricity.

  11. Electromagnetic Energy • Light is a form of electromagnetic energy. • Each color of light (Roy G Biv) represents a different amount of electromagnetic energy. • Electromagnetic Energy is also carried by X-rays, radio waves, and laser light.

  12. Nuclear Energy • The nucleus of an atom is the source of nuclear energy.

  13. Nuclear Energy • When the nucleus splits—fission— nuclear energy is released in the form of thermal energy and EM energy. • Nuclear energy is also released when nuclei collide at high speeds and undergo fusion

  14. Nuclear Energy The sun’s energy is produced from nuclear fusion in which hydrogen nuclei fuse to form helium nuclei.

  15. Nuclear Energy • Nuclear energy is the most concentrated form of energy.

  16. Mechanical Energy • When work is done to an object, it acquires energy. The energy it acquires is known as mechanical energy.

  17. Mechanical Energy • When you kick a football, you give mechanical energy to the football to make it move.

  18. Mechanical Energy When you throw a bowling ball, you give it energy. When that bowling ball hits the pins, some of the energy is transferred to the pins.

  19. Energy Conversion • Energy can be changed from one form to another. Changes in the form of energy are called energy conversions or energy transformations. Thermal and Kinetic Electrical

  20. Energy conversions • All forms of energy can be converted into other forms. • The sun’s energy through solar cells can be converted directly into electricity. • Green plants convert the sun’s energy (electromagnetic) into starches and sugars (chemical energy).

  21. Other energy conversions • In an electric motor, electromagnetic energy is converted to mechanical energy. • In a battery, chemical energy is converted into electromagnetic energy. • The mechanical energy of a waterfall is converted to electrical energy in a generator.

  22. Energy Conversions • In an automobile engine, fuel is burned to convert chemical energy into thermal energy. The thermal energy is then changed into mechanical energy.

  23. Chemical  Heat Mechanical

  24. States of Energy • The most common energy conversion is the conversion between potential and kinetic energy. • All forms of energy can be in either of two states: • Potential • Kinetic

  25. States of Energy: Kinetic and Potential Energy • Kinetic Energy is the energy of motion. • Potential Energy is stored energy.

  26. Kinetic and Potential Energy

  27. Energy can be classified as potential or kinetic • Potential energy: energy of position The boulder has more gravitational potential energy when measured from point A compared to B. PE = mgh

  28. Kinetic and potential energy conversions • Describe the energy conversions in this picture: • At the top: • ¼ of the way down: • ½ way down: • ¾ down • At the bottom: • Is the sum of KE + PE a constant? All PE, no KE 3/4 PE, 1/4 KE 1/2 PE, 1/2 KE 1/4 PE, 3/4 KE No PE, All KE Yes! It’s always 10,000 J in this case.

  29. Where are PE and KE maximums in this picture? PE and KE Max PE no KE Max KE No PE Max PE No KE

  30. What happens when the cord is cut? Potential energy is converted to kinetic energy!

  31. Kinetic and potential energy convert to one another PE max PE max no KE no KE KE max KE max no PE no PE

  32. Einstein's theories of relativity have been proved during solar eclipses. Light is bent by gravity

  33. Kinetic Energy • The energy of motion is called kinetic energy. • The faster an object moves, the more kinetic energy it has. • The greater the mass of a moving object, the more kinetic energy it has. • Kinetic energy depends on both mass and velocity.

  34. Potential Energy • Potential Energy is stored energy. • Stored chemically in fuel, the nucleus of atom, and in foods. • Or stored because of the work done on it: • Stretching a rubber band. • Winding a watch. • Pulling back on a bow’s arrow. • Lifting a brick high in the air.

  35. Gravitational Potential Energy • Potential energy that is dependent on height is called gravitational potential energy.

  36. Gravitational Potential Energy • If you stand on a 3-meter diving board, you have 3 times the G.P.E, than you had on a 1-meter diving board.

  37. Gravitational Potential Energy • A waterfall, a suspension bridge, and a falling snowflake all have gravitational potential energy.

  38. Elastic Potential Energy • Energy that is stored due to being stretched or compressed is called elastic potential energy.

  39. Gravitational Potential Energy • “The bigger they are the harder they fall” is not just a saying. It’s true. Objects with more mass have greater G.P.E. • The formula to find G.P.E. is GPE = mgh

  40. Kinetic-Potential Energy Conversion Roller coasters work because of the energy that is built into the system. Initially, the cars are pulled mechanically up the tallest hill, giving them a great deal of potential energy. From that point, the conversion between potential and kinetic energy powers the cars throughout the entire ride.

  41. Kinetic vs. Potential Energy At the point of maximum potential energy, the car has minimum kinetic energy. There is a constant trade off between KE and PE that equals total ME.

  42. Kinetic-Potential Energy Conversions • As a basketball player throws the ball into the air, various energy conversions take place.

  43. Ball speeds up Ball slows down

  44. The Law of Conservation of Energy • Energy can neither be created nor destroyed by ordinary means. • It can only be converted from one form to another. • If energy seems to disappear, then scientists look for it – leading to many important discoveries.

  45. Thermodynamics Cartoon courtesy of NearingZero.net

  46. TEMPERATURE, HEAT AND THERMAL ENERGY

  47. Temperature & Heat Temperature is related to the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance.

  48. Temperature • Temperature • measure of the average KE of the particles in a sample of matter

  49. Thermal Energy • Thermal Energy • the total energy of the particles in a material • KE - movement of particles • PE - forces within or between particles due to position • depends on temperature, mass, and type of substance

  50. SI unit for temp. is the Kelvin a. K = C + 273 (10C = 283K) b. C = K – 273 (10K = -263C) Thermal Energy – the total of all the kinetic and potential energy of all the particles in a substance.