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The w ind

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  1. The wind Dr. Péter Kádár Óbuda University, Power System Department, Hungary kadar.peter@kvk.uni-obuda.hu

  2. Draft • Wind basics • Drivers of the wind energy application • The energy of the wind • Dynamic simulation • Wind forecast Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  3. The wind… …forms the surface Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  4. The wind… …blows our hair Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  5. The wind… …brakes the signes Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  6. The wind… …moves the sailboats Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  7. The wind… … destroys the forests Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  8. The wind… … forwards the snow Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  9. The wind… … blows the flag Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  10. The wind… … lifts our kite Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  11. The wind… … dries our cloths Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  12. And the wind… …bends the trees Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  13. And the wind… …turns our propeller Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  14. …butnobodycanseeit! Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  15. Windrose Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  16. Windrose Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  17. Wind turbine and measurement system anemometer Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  18. Measurements Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  19. Simple windrose Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  20. Speed-Weighted windrose • Direction? • Average speed? • Energy? Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  21. Main winter directions Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  22. Main yearly directions Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  23. Wind (speed) map for 10 m heights Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  24. Wind (speed) map for 75 m height Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  25. Daily wind course in diff. heights Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  26. Upscaling • Measurements or calculations on different heights • Upscaling – continuous formula to define the windspeed in other heights • e.g. Hellmann equation Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  27. Local wind profile Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  28. Global windforecast services Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  29. www.met.hu Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  30. On-line: http://www.idokep.hu Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  31. Historical data(http://www.met.hu/megfigyelesek/index.php?v=Budapest) Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  32. Global models • Supercomputing • 27 km -> 2,5 km cubes • Differential equations system • But • Differentmeasurementpoints • Differentapplicationpoints Forecast Application measurement Terrestrialforms Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  33. Professional services • Numerical weather forecasts • Horizontal and vertical interpolation • Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program + PARK modell • Statistical elements • Meteorological models (e.g. ALADIN, MEANDER), other sources (ECMWF, MM5, HIRLAM, stb.) • Result presentation by heights or by isobar? Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  34. Statistical approach Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  35. Weibulldistribution Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  36. Local direction changes Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  37. Local speed changes Speed changes + direction changes = turbulence Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  38. Turbulencies Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  39. Local windspeed tower measurements in a wind park, during 4 min, in the range 6-10 m/s(data from: Mov-R H1 SzélerőműKft., Hungary) Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  40. Local windspeed tower measurements in a wind park, during 4 min, in the range 3-6 m/s(data from: Mov-R H1 SzélerőműKft., Hungary) Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  41. Local windspeed tower measurements in a wind park, during 4 min, over 10 m/s(data from: Mov-R H1 SzélerőműKft., Hungary) Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  42. Spread over of the wind energy application Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  43. Fig.Global cumulative installed wind capacity 1996-2010 Global Wind Energy Council 2010 (GWEC) Wind basics - Patra, 2012 MW

  44. Windpower capacity in Europe, 2006, MW MW Wind basics - Patra, 2012 Forrás: www.ewea.org

  45. Wind energy application in Europe Wind basics - Patra, 2012 EWEA, 2010

  46. Yearly built in wind capacities in Europe 2009 9581MWonshore 582MW offshore Wind basics - Patra, 2012 EWEA, 2010

  47. Repowering Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  48. Some drivers of the windenergy business • Growing demand for electricity • EU directives • Subventions • Sustainability • Reduction of CO2 emisson • Green investment boom (ROI 4-5 years) • Employment, etc. Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  49. Catching the wind energy Wind basics - Patra, 2012

  50. Simpleenergymodells • Tubemodel • v - speed, V - volumedonotchanges • P – pressure, T – temperaturedecreeases 2. Decceleratingmass v - speed, V - volumedecreases P – pressure, T – temperaturedonotchanges Reality: v, V, P, T - changes Wind basics - Patra, 2012