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GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

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  1. GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE Synthetic and analytical types of languages Analytical verb-forms: function word + full /content word • continuous forms • perfect forms • forms of the future • interrogative forms • negative forms • forms of the passive voice Synthetic verb-forms: inflectional morphemes + inner flexions

  2. GRAMMAR=study of rules governing the use of a language PRESCRIPTIVE APPROACH TO GRAMMAR prescribes grammatical norms DESCRIPTIVE APPROACH TO GRAMMAR describes how language is used in practice

  3. THE SUBFIELDS OF GRAMMAR phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics. In traditional terms:morphology and syntax SYNTAX (Greek: syn=together + assein= arrange; Latin: syntaxis) • deals with the structure of sentences MORPHOLOGY (Greek: morphé= form/structure + logos= word) = branch of linguistics that studies word structure = the study of how words are formed out of smaller units called morphemes = study of morphemes and the way they are joined together to make words

  4. L. Bloomfield: MORPHEME=smallest meaningful unit in a given language = different realisations (morphs) in different context e.g. the verb morpheme “do“ = do, does, don´t Such alternating morphs of a morpheme = allomorphs. ALLOMORPHS=variants of a single morpheme: pl.-s: /-z/,/-s/,/iz/ MORPHEMES FREE: • lexical • functional BOUND: • derivational • inflectional

  5. CLASSIFICATION OF WORD CLASSES(PARTS OF SPEECH) • Full / content/ notional / words = open classes (can form new words) • Function words = closed classes A lot of English words belong to more than one word class.

  6. NOUNS (Latin nomen = name) = person, place, thing, idea, animal, quality, activity, state, event, Distinctive features of nouns: • noun-forming derivational affixes • the threefold inflectional sibilant suffix • marking by determiners • fixed position in the sentence • substitutable by pronouns Some nouns: • the same form as verbs • graphically different • phonetically different

  7. CLASSIFICATION OF NOUNS COMMON NOUNS PROPER NOUNS • names of individuals = personal names, geographical names, • names of a group of individuals CONCRETE NOUNS - definite objects ABSTRACT NOUNS - quality, action, state, ideas, concepts COLLECTIVE NOUNS – groups of people or things MATERIAL NOUNS - do not require limiting modifiers - usually have no plural forms

  8. MORPHOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF NOUNS 1) SIMPLE NOUNS: no affixes 2) DERIVATIVE NOUNS: • prefixes: un-, mis-, pre-, for-; anti-, ex-, il-, -in-, non-, sub-, super-, vice-, • suffixes: -al, -ance, -ence, -ant, -ar, -er, -or, -ion, -iour, -ledge, -ment, -y, -ee; -age, -ce, -cy, -ry, -ty, -ity, -ness, -ation, -dom, -ess, -hood, -ian, -ism, -ist, -ship -ing forms used as nouns - diminutives: -let, -ing, -ie, -ock, -ette -ian, -er, -ese, -an, -ish, -ite Nouns with 2 suffixes: -ishness

  9. 3) COMPOUNDSwords joined together referring to a single object • N stem + N stem • Adj stem + N stem • Adv stem + N stem • Verb stem + N stem CN with –ing forms CN with a linking element: - a vowel/consonant - a preposition - a conjunction DERIVATIONAL COMPOUNDS

  10. OTHER WORD FORMATION PROCESSES CONVERSION = lexemes change their word class without adding affixes V > N Adj > N N > V Adj > V Adv > V N > Adj Adv > Adj Adv > N BLENDING; CLIPPING;

  11. GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF NUMBER Countable Ns = sg + pl; valley; country; BUT: Kennedy; photo; BUT: hero; cargo; • VOICING PLURAL: wife; BUT: roof; dwarf; • MUTATED PLURAL: Englishman; BUT: German; • -en PLURAL:child; BUT: brother; • UNINFLECTED PLURAL: sheep; BUT: oyster : • FOREIGN PLURAL: phenomenon; analysis; bacterium; BUT: focus; larva; antenna; index; • PLURAL IN COMPOUNDS bedroom; postman; brother-in-law; passer-by; forget-me-not;

  12. PLURAL IN COLLECTIVE NOUNS - in sg. followed by Vs in sg.: foliage, machinery; - in sg. followed by Vs in pl.: cattle; vermin; - in sg. used with Vs in sg. or pl.: committee; police; • Ns in pl. - V in pl.: clothes, goods; pyjamas, scissors; • Ns with -s – V in sg: billiards; mumps; news; BUT: statistics; • the same sg + pl = V in sg. or pl.: series; species; PLURAL OF NAMES OF NATIONS • Switzerland: sg.a Swiss, pl. many Swiss, nation: the Swiss • The Netherlands = Dutchman, Dutchmen, nation: the Dutch

  13. COUNTABILITY COUNTABLE Ns:living beings or things with a definite form; some abstract Ns; sg. and pl.; articles; numerals; How many? few; UNCOUNTABLE Ns: sth can be measured but not counted, without shape/limits; 1 form; the; no numerals; How much? little; • material, liquids, substances: snow, iron, water, gold • abstract qualities and ideas: courage, success, peace UC in EN, BUT: gossip, information, hair, homework, news, soap UC in pl.= kinds, extension, intensity: wines, waters, sands, heats C/U = glass, iron, paper Partitives

  14. GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF GENDER OE = grammatical gender; ModE = natural gender: male= masculine; female= feminine; inanimate things= neuter • gender-forming suffix -ess: actress other suffixes: heroine, widower, usherette • gender expressed lexically: - by different words: mother – father - by pronouns: wolf – she-wolf - by words indicating the gender: male reader – female reader Nouns with a generic term + a pair: horse; pig; sheep; monarch

  15. COMMON GENDER singer, journalist, neighbour, student = pronouns - male or female; A pet: F = cat, parrot; car, ship; M = dog, horse, canary PERSONIFICATION (in poetry): Masculine = Ns - strength, inflexibility, resistance, necessity - names of winds, rivers, mountains summer, autumn, winter, the sun, anger, love, murder, war, death Feminine = Ns denoting tenderness, feableness, loveliness - names of countries (ref. to the nation), towns, universities the moon, the earth, mercy, charity, faith, hope, modesty, justice

  16. GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF CASE OE = 4 cases: N, G, D, Acc. ModE: • the common case = uninflected form • the possessive/genitive case = inflected by: -´s in sg: a girl´s book; my mother-in-law´s pen; Peter and Paul´s quarrel; -´ in pl.: girls´ school; BUT: children´s toys; Dickens´/ Dickens´s novel;

  17. DEPENDENT GENITIVE • proper names: Paul´s car; • personal nouns: my sister´s school • personal indefinite pronouns: someone´s passport • names of animals: dog´s life • collective nouns: government´s decision • geographical names: Slovakia´s export; BUT: • institutional names: the school´s history • expressions of time, space, weight, distance: two week´s work • names of seasons/months/days: Sunday´s newspaper • with words: sun, moon, earth, world: the earth´s surface • with words: ship, boat, vessel: ship´s cargo • with personification (in poetry): wind´s whistle • fixed expressions: by a hair´s breadth

  18. THE OF-CONSTRUCTION / OF-GENITIVE refers to: • things when we cannot form a compound • parts of things • abstract nouns • partitives • geographical notions • some other nouns

  19. THE ABSOLUTE / ELYPTICAL GENITIVE = without a following noun: • when it is clear what / who we are talking about • when referring to work-places, shops, banks, houses: THE DOUBLE GENITIVE = when a noun is determined by: • articles • numerals • some • demonstrative pronouns

  20. DETERMINERS= words used in front of common nouns CENTRAL DETERMINERS = mutually exclusive 1) articles 2) possessive 3) demonstrative 4) assertive;nonassertive 5) negative 6) universal 7) dual 8) WH-determiners

  21. DETERMINERS = determine (affect) the meaning of the noun PREDETERMINERS = precede the required CD in a N phrase: - quantifying - fractional - intensifying - multiplying POSTDETERMINERS = follow the required CD in a N phrase - cardinal numerals - ordinal numerals - many, much + its relatives - the forms of other - the phrasal quantifiers

  22. THE DEFINITE ARTICLE: the = from OE demonstrative pronoun sé - particular object; sth that is known; specific or definite reference; - C in sg.; C in pl.; U; the definite object; - we know exactly from the context; - unique things - political parties; the whole family; nouns of nationalities; - in proverbs - ordinal numerals; superlative degree – adj.; substantivized adj. - with some places, even if we don´t know exactly which - with: same, very, right, wrong; the weather; - some, many, none, most + preposition of; - abstract Ns modified by an attribute in post-position

  23. THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE: a / an = from OE numeral án (one) - meaning “one“: Ns denoting time, measure, weight, numerals - people or things in general - all the representatives of the class = “every“ - Ns introduced for the 1st time - CNs - object belonging to a class = “some, any“ - with jobs, Ns of nationalities; some illnesses; - proper Ns (member of family; literature, art) - Ns: period, population, distance, height, salary + OF constr. - after “there is“, “what a ...“, “such a ...“ - personal names modified by “certain“

  24. THE ZERO ARTICLE = shows that Ns are used in a general sense - with pl CNs in general statements - abstract Ns; UNs of material - some illnesses; illnesses in -s - activities + sport games - in general: names of periods of a year, months, days, holidays - languages; names of subjects; names of food; - names of persons; forms of addressing people; titles + names; - Ns expressing relationship - in certain prepositional phrases

  25. THE USE OF ARTICLES No article:Articles: I like spring. It happened in the spring of 1968. It was spring. It was a cold spring. Day is meant for work, He won´t forget the day when... night for sleep. The night was warm. to be in prison (= prisoner) to be in the prison (= building) to leave school/at school (study) to leave the school; a good school Is dinner ready? The dinner we had today was ... speak French use the French language at work Dickens, the great novelist, ... It´s a Dickens novel. /a Picasso

  26. THE USE OF ARTICLES NO ARTICLE: THE DEFINITE ARTICLE: Africa, Asia, Europe the Antarctica, the Continent (Europe) England, Germany the UK, the Vatican, the Ukraine - the Pacific (Ocean), the Black Sea, the Nile Lake Ontario, Lake Geneva the Ontario (no: lake) Mount Everest, Mont Blanc, the Matterhorn, the Jungfrau, Elbrus, Snowdon, Ben Nevis the Alps, the Himalayas, Malta, Sicily, Madagaskar the Isle of Capri, the Isle of Man groups of islands: the Bahamas, the Azores, the Canaries - the Gobi (Desert), the Sahara London / Westminster Bridge the Golden Gate Br., the Tower Br.

  27. PRONOUNS point out objects / qualities without naming them 1) PERSONAL: = refer to the person speaking, spoken to, spoken about Gram. categories of P, N, C, G – 3rd sg. Common case is replaced by: - subjective case - objective case 2) POSSESSIVE: = refer to parts of the body and personal belongings Gram. categories: P, N, G 2 forms: - the dependent / attribute form (possessive determiners) - the independent / the nominal form

  28. SPECIFIC PRONOUNS 3) DEMONSTRATIVE: express the number contrast = point at what is nearer or farther in time and space Such =of this/that kind; such as = for example Same =always with “the“ 4) REFLEXIVE: indicate - action expressed by V passes back to S Gram. categories: P, N, G – 3rd sg. - as direct or indirect O - after a preposition; after “by“ meaning alone; - as part of the predicative of the V to be - in fixed phrases - to emphasize sth. = used with reflexive Vs

  29. 5) SPECIFIC INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS = form questions; always precede the V Who = 3 case-forms, used only for persons Subjective; Objective; Genitive/Possessive (determiner); What = no case-forms; used: • for things • for an activity • to ask for a person´s profession, character, etc. • in idiomatic expressions Which = used for things and persons; sg. or pl; subject or object; = implies choice among a certain number of things • often followed by an of-phrase Compound interrogatives: = used for emphasis

  30. 6) SPECIFIC RELATIVE PRONOUNS point out back to a N or pron. mentioned before = antecedent Forms : • personal: subject: who; object: whom; possessive: whose; • non-pers: subj: which, that; obj: which, that; poss: whose That =for persons/things in restrictive relative clauses - can sometimes be left out of a sentence - cannot be preceded by a preposition - after the superlative; after most indefinite pronouns; - after opening phrases; antecedent = both person +thing What is used when an antecedent is not expressed Compound relative pronouns Relative as = always after such + after the same (also: that)

  31. 7) SPECIFIC RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS = express mutual action or relation = the subject = always in pl. Each other implies only two One another = two or more persons The common case The genitive case

  32. INDEFINITE: UNIVERSAL PRONOUNS ALL: persons / things; in sg. / pl.; expresses unity; - as a pronoun meaning: everything; - as an adjective meaning: the whole of; - in some expressions EACH: 2 or more than 2 persons/things separately - a limited number; after of and at the end - as a pronoun + as a determiner EVERY: more than 2 persons/things meaning: altogether; - unlimited number; after: nearly, not; only as a determiner - in idiomatic expressions BOTH: with pl N and pl V - as pronoun; as adjective; adverbially;

  33. INDEFINITE: PARTITIVE PRONOUNS SOME = determiner or nominal function; CNs + UNs; compounds - indefinite quant./nr; contrast; particular but unidentified - affirm. sent.; interrogative = positive reply; before numerals ANY = it doesn´t matter who, which, what; CNs+UNs; compounds - in: interrog.; negative; indirect quest.; condit. clauses; adverbially NO = determiner function; “not any, not a“; CNs + UNs; Nobody, no one, nothing =nominal f., sg V; replaced by any-; NONE =nominal function; sg+ pl; of-constructions THE OTHER /+sg N= the second of two ANOTHER = an additional one; a different one; THE OTHERS; THE OTHER + pl N = remaining ones; OTHERS; OTHER + pl N = different, additional, remaining ones; EITHER=1/the other of 2;both; NEITHER=not this, not the other

  34. INDEFINITE: QUANTIFYING PRONOUNS MANY, FEW = pl., used with CNs MUCH, LITTLE = sg., used with UNs In affirmative s.: a lot of, lots of, plenty of, a good deal of, MANY, MUCH: in interrog. + negative; MUCH = also adverbially FEW, LITTLE = negative meaning; A FEW, A LITTLE = positive SEVERAL: in pl.;determiner+nominal f. with of-construction ENOUGH: with CNs + UNs;determiner or nominal function; ONE: - numerical - replacive = a word-substitute (not with UNs) - indefinite = “people in general“ - after WHICH;

  35. ADJECTIVES / MODIFIERSlimit or qualify words by describing them According to morphologic characteristics: 1) GRADABLE • the positive • the comparative • the superlative Two types of comparison: synthetic and analytical 2) NON-GRADABLE IRREGULAR FORMS OF ADJECTIVES Spelling rules

  36. ADJECTIVESdo not change in gender, number, case According to their meaning: QUALITATIVE /descriptive: size, shape, colour, m. + ph. qualities RELATIVE = to materials, place, time, action SUBSTANTIVIZED ADJECTIVES: wholly or partially MORPHOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF ADJECTIVES: • primary / simple • secondary: - derived /derivative - converted • compound Pre-modifiers x post-modifiers

  37. ADVERBS express some circumstances that attend an action, state, or point out some characteristic features of an action or a quality - answer questions: HOW? WHEN? WHERE? HOW OFTEN? TO WHAT EXTENT? IN WHAT ORDER? - can modify: Vs, adj. , indefinite pron., other adv., Ns, whole sentences; The modifying adverb is usually an INTENSIFIER According to their structure: • simple • derivative • compound • composite Adverbial phrases

  38. GRADABILITY OF ADVERBS GRADABLE: synthetic or analytical Irregular forms of comparison NON-GRADABLE According to their meaning: • adverbs of MANNER • adverbs of PLACE and DIRECTION • adverbs of TIME • adverbs of FREQUENCY • adverbs of DEGREE, MEASURE and QUANTITY 2 forms of adverbs The same forms of adverbs and adjectives CONSTRUCTIONS WITH COMPARISON

  39. POSITION OF ADVERBS IN A SENTENCE • of manner: • of degrees: • of place and directions: • of time: • of frequency:

  40. VERBS = word class / clause element Grammatical categoriesof Vs: tense, aspect, voice, mood A sentence: - a single verb = the finite verb phrase (VP) is simple: - a cluster of Vs = the VP is complex: Within a complex VP = up to 4 auxiliaries in front of the main V. 4 basic types of the complex finite VP: • modal • perfective • progressive • passive

  41. VERBS - according to the function within a VP = 3 classes of Vs: • primary auxiliary Vs • modal auxiliary Vs • lexical (main, full) Vs - according to the finiteness: • finite V forms • non-finite V forms - according to morphological forms: • regular Vs • irregular Vs

  42. VERBS Regular Vs = 4 morphological forms: • the base form (no inflections) = 4 functions • the -ed form (past form + -ed participle form) = 3 functions • the -s form • -ing form Irregular Vs = either 5 forms or 3 forms - classified into: • 3 forms alike • 3 forms different • past tense equals -ed participle • V base equals -ed participle • V base equals the past tense

  43. PRIMARY AUXILIARY VERBS = assist the main V to express gram. contrasts (in P, N, T) = a separate class TO BE = unique, 8 forms; uncontracted x contracted negative forms 2 functions: 1. as an aspect auxiliary for the progressive 2. as a passive auxiliary Lexical V = when combined with Adj., Adv., Pron., Ns Forms: present; past; present perfect; past perfect; future; future perfect; progressive present; progressive past;

  44. PRIMARY AUXILIARY VERBS TO HAVE = base, -s, past, -ing, -ed; contracted x uncontr. negative forms Lexical V = to possess; Forms: present; past; present perfect; past perfect; future; future perfect; HAVE x HAVE GOT = often interchangeable In BrE: have got = perfect form of “get“ + have got = to possess; In BrE questions - by inversion, in AmE - by operators When a stative V = no progressive form When a dynamic V = meaning: eat, drink, enjoy, take, experience HAVE + determiner + noun = to perform activity

  45. PRIMARY AUXILIARY VERBS TO DO = present; -s; past; contracted x uncontracted negative forms; Lexical V = to perform; to work at or be engaged in sth. Forms: -ing; -ed; ... Auxiliary V: - negated imperative - in questions - in tag questions - in emphatic or persuasive constructions - in inversion caused by introductory words (negative adverbs: hardly, seldom)

  46. MODALS = the speaker´s attitude toward the action or state indicated by the infinitive I CAN / COULD (periphrastic form: to be able to) CAN = ability, capability; CANNOT/CAN´T = inability, incapability CAN expresses: • physical and mental abilities • asking and giving permission • with Vs with perception • possibility CAN´T/COULD/COULD NOT + perfect inf.= ref. to the past CAN/CAN´T + passive infinitive

  47. MODALS - defective, not inflected; followed by bare infinitive; I MAY / MIGHT (periphrastic = to be allowed to) • permission • in questions MAY is more formal than CAN MIGHT in more polite requests MUSTN´T stronger prohibition than MAY NOT - possibility (= it is possible) MAY + present infinitive = about present or future happenings MAY/MIGHT + perfect infinitive = guess about past happening MIGHT expresses reproach MIGHT + perfect infinitive = action was not carried out in the past MAY as a subjunctive auxiliary (expresses wish)

  48. MODALS - cannot form imperative; do not have the infinitive form; I MUST (to have to) = to be obliged to; to be compelled to • inescapable obligation, duty or necessity • an absence of obligation by NEED NOT or DON´T HAVE TO MUSTN´T is a strong way of forbidding to do sth. MUST, HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO = interchangeable • obligation comes from the speaker • stronger obligation for other persons MUST in notices, documents, commands MUST in pressing invitation and emphatic advice MUST + present inf. = deduction refers to the present MUST + perfect inf. = deduction about the past

  49. MODALS - negative and interrogative forms without the auxiliary SHALL expresses: • volition (mostly for 1st sg.) • in questions = obligation or suggestion • insistence, threat • in legal documents- in 2nd, 3rd person SHOULD • in reported speech; in offers, suggestions, requests; • escapable obligation, duty • probability; after if and in case = possibility • recommendations from an outside authority OUGHT TO = more objective force, talk about laws, duties SHOULD/OUGHT TO + perf. inf.= action wasn´t carried out

  50. MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS WILL expresses: • prediction about the future; about the present; giving orders; • habitual predictive meaning in conditional; • willingness to do sth.; intention to make promises or threats • to make requests or to give orders WILL+perfect inf.= logical deduction about the past WOULD = past form, in reported speech - about past habits + characteristic behaviour (no with state V) WOULD as conditional WOULD = more polite request than WILL - after I wish / If only I ... expresses willingness