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Synthesis of Recent & Ongoing Studies: Accessibility and Pedestrian Safety at Roundabouts. Andrew T. Duerr, P.E. Northeast US Roundabouts Peer Exchange July 7, 2010. Towson Roundabout. Historical Perspective. Based Largely on European Experience NCHRP Synthesis 264 (1998)

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synthesis of recent ongoing studies accessibility and pedestrian safety at roundabouts
Synthesis ofRecent & Ongoing Studies:Accessibility and PedestrianSafety at Roundabouts

Andrew T. Duerr, P.E.

Northeast US Roundabouts Peer Exchange

July 7, 2010

historical perspective
Historical Perspective
  • Based Largely on European Experience
  • NCHRP Synthesis 264 (1998)
  • Roundabouts safe for Pedestrians because:
      • Low Speeds
      • Shorter Crossing Distances
      • Fewer Conflict Points
  • 2000 FHWA Roundabouts: An Informational Guide
      • Maintains prior assumptions
back to towson
Back to Towson

Located near Balt. Co. Commission on Disabilities

CMCB files Complaint to DOJ

DOJ defers to FHWA

American Council for the Blind Continues to Seek Roundabout Moratorium

back to towson5
Back to Towson
  • FHWA Finds in Favor of SHA
  • SHA offers Concessions
    • Improved Wayfinding
    • Detectable Warning Surfaces
    • APS at Signals near the Roundabout
  • Access Board begins to Focus on Roundabouts (1999)
accessibility research
Accessibility Research
  • 1999 Western Michigan/Vanderbilt
    • 3 roundabouts in MD (including Towson)
    • 3 roundabouts in Tampa, FL
  • 2000 National Eye Institute Study (NEIS)
  • 2001 National Institute on Disability & Rehab Research
  • 2005 Human Factors Study
  • 2006 FHWA Pedestrian Access to Roundabouts
accessibility research7
Accessibility Research
  • Summary of Findings – 1999-2006
    • Poor Yield Rates – Unsignalized Locations
    • Noise makes Aural Gap Detection difficult
    • Identifiable Gaps may be Infrequent
    • Visually Impaired Pedestrians experience 3s Delay (compared to Sighted Peds)
access board perspective
Access Board Perspective

Accessibility is a Civil Right

Safety ≠ Accessibility

Courts finding 2005 Draft PROWAG to be Best Available Guidance

pedestrian safety research
Pedestrian Safety Research
  • 2006 NCHRP 562: Improving Pedestrian Safety at Unsignalized Crossings
  • 2007 NCHRP 572: Roundabouts in the United States
  • TØI Report 1009/2009

Subjective and Objective Safety: The Effect of Road Safety Measures on Subjective Safety among Vulnerable Road Users

    • Institute of Transport Economics, Norway
nchrp 562
NCHRP 562

Improving Pedestrian Safety at Unsignalized Crossings (2006)

  • Recommend Treatments for:
    • Pedestrian crossings
    • High speed, high volume roadways
    • Unsignalized intersections
  • Recommend Modifications to MUTCD Pedestrian Signal Warrants
nchrp 56211
NCHRP 562

Treatment Categories

  • Marked Crosswalk
  • Enhanced, High Visibility, or Active When Present devices
  • Red Signal or Beacon Device
  • Conventional Traffic Signal
nchrp 56212
NCHRP 562

Findings & Conclusions

  • Crossing Treatment Affects Compliance
    • Only Signals > 95% Compliance Rate
  • Other Factors Affect Compliance
    • Width, Speed & Environment
  • 1-Lane Roads – Compliance > 75%
  • 2-Lane Roads – 30% to 100%
nchrp 572
NCHRP 572

Roundabouts in the US (2007)

  • No Substantial Safety Problems Found
  • Non-Yielding Rate 43% on 2-Lane Legs
  • Additional Changes required to Improve Yield Rates
    • Design
    • Operational
    • Enforcement & Education
t i report 1009 2009
TØI Report 1009/2009

Objective (Real) Ped Safety ↑

Subjective (Perceived) Ped Safety ↓

on going research
On-Going Research
  • NCHRP 3-78: Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities
  • Golden, Colorado
  • Oakland County, Michigan
nchrp 3 78
NCHRP 3-78

Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities

  • Objectives:
    • Identify/Test Treatments
    • Analysis Framework
    • Means to Extend Findings
  • Expected Summer 2010
nchrp 3 7817
NCHRP 3-78

Study Involved:

  • Single-Lane Roundabouts
  • Two-Lane Roundabouts
  • Channelized Turn Lanes
nchrp 3 7818
NCHRP 3-78

4-Step Analysis Framework:

  • Crossing Opportunity Criterion
  • Crossing Opportunity Utilization Criterion
  • Delay Criterion
  • Safety Criterion
nchrp 3 7819
NCHRP 3-78

Draft Findings:

  • CTL’s are Challenging
  • Low Speed S/L Roundabouts are Accessible given Certain Conditions
  • Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons & Raised Crosswalks show Promise at 2-Lane Roundabouts
  • 2-Lane Roundabouts are Challenging w/o Additional Treatments
nchrp 3 7820
NCHRP 3-78

Future Research:

  • Expand Number of Field Study Sites
  • More Detailed Look at CTL’s
  • Investigate Impact of Education
  • Expand Study of Treatments at 2-Lane Roundabouts
  • Improve Field-Based Risk Performance
  • Auditory Environment
synthesis of recent ongoing studies accessibility and pedestrian safety at roundabouts21
Synthesis ofRecent & Ongoing Studies:Accessibility and PedestrianSafety at Roundabouts

Andrew T. Duerr, P.E.

aduerr@rkk.com

eliminate reduce conflict
Eliminate/Reduce Conflict
  • Grade Separation
  • Simplify Geometry
    • Eliminate or reduce entry/exit lanes
    • Reorient pedestrian networks away from Roundabout
minimize pedestrian exposure
Minimize Pedestrian Exposure
  • Simplify Roundabout Geometry
  • Geometric Improvements
    • Bulb outs
    • Raised cross walks
    • Buffer Strips between Sidewalk and Roadway
    • Low Speed Design
  • Signalized Crossings
  • ITS Solutions
  • Police Enforcement
improve gap detection
Improve Gap Detection

ITS Solutions

Treatments that Provide Audible Cues

Shift Crossings Downstream from Exits