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karyn-bowman

Cellular Respiration - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Cellular Respiration
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  1. Cellular Respiration

  2. Matter is recycled Energy is not (Entropy) Cells use energy for work and growth Chemical products (CO2, H2O) are recycled

  3. Catabolic Pathways and Production of ATP • The breakdown of organic molecules is exergonic • Two methods: • Cellular respiration • Fermentation

  4. Catabolic Pathways and ATP • Cellular respiration • Aerobic • Most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway • Consumes oxygen and organic molecules • Yields ATP – coupled reaction • Fermentation- partial degradation of sugars • Anaerobic

  5. ATP and Cellular Work • Lots of energy in C-H bonds • Carbos are primary source of C-H, but lipids, proteins can be used

  6. Steps of Respiration 1.Glycolysis 2. Kreb’s Citric Acid Cycle 3. Electron Transport Chain (ETC)

  7. Cellular Respiration • What you need to know: • Where does each step take place? • What are the reactants and products?

  8. Acetyl CoA

  9. Glycolysis: ‘Split Sugar’ • In the cytosol • Anaerobic

  10. 2 ATP are USED to initiate the reaction (activation energy) 4 ATP are FORMED near the end of glycolysis (coupled reaction)

  11. Glucose is phosphorylated

  12. Substrate-level phosphorylation

  13. S-L phosphorylation

  14. Products: (2) pyruvate 3C Pyruvic acid 4 ATP 2 NADH 2 H2O Glycolysis

  15. Glycolysis • ATP used for work • NADH goes to ETC • H2O = metabolic water (?) • (2) Pyruvate go into mitochondria and formation of Acetyl CoA

  16. Formation of Acetyl Coenzyme A • Transition between glycolysis (anaerobic) and Kreb’s (aerobic) • Pyruvate enters mitochondrion • CO2 removed - waste • NAD reduced to NADH (2x) • Goes to ETC • Acetyl Coenzyme A – goes to Kreb’s

  17. Products 2 Acetyl CoA 2 NADH 2 CO2 Formation of Acetyl CoA

  18. Krebs • Citric acid cycle • 2 turns of Krebs for each glucose to be oxidized • Takes place in the matrix - enzymes are in the mitochondrial matrix

  19. Krebs • Exergonic • Energy used to produce NADH and FADH • 2 ATP produced • Oxaloacetate is regenerated

  20. Products: 4 CO2 2 ATP 6 NADH 2 FADH2 Krebs

  21. Krebs • H is ‘carried’ by NADH/FADH to ETC to generate ATP by OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION

  22. Kreb’s ETC

  23. ETC • Most ATP created during ETC by Oxidative phosphorylation • Energy from Krebs is stored in NADH and FADH2 • Flow of electronsdown the ETC generates 32 ATP

  24. ETC • Carrier molecules (proteins) are embedded within the inner membrane • Each successive carrier has a higher electronegativity than the previous one • Electrons are ‘pulled’ downhill toOxygen • Strongest electronegativity

  25. Proton gradient

  26. Proton Gradient • H ions (protons) are ‘pumped’ across inner membrane by energy created whenelectrons are passed through the ETC • H+ ions build-up in the intermembrane space • H+ ions diffuse back across the membrane into the matrix through ATP synthase • Potential energy stored in H+ is used to make ATP

  27. Summary of Aerobic Respiration

  28. Summary: Glycolysis • Initial breakdown of glucose • 2 ATP invested • 4 ATP generated = net 2 • 2 NADH generated; electrons to ETC • 2 pyruvate molecules (C3)

  29. Summary: Formation of Acetyl CoA • Aerobic • 2 Pyruvates into acetyl groups • Addition of coenzyme A • 2 NADH generated • 2 molecules of CO2 formed (waste)

  30. Summary: Krebs • Aerobic • 2 ATP formed • 6 NADH • 2 FADH2 • 4 CO2 (waste) • First C compound formed – citric acid • Oxaloacetic acid regenerated

  31. Summary:ETC • Aerobic • 32 – 34 ATP (40% effective) • Oxidative phosphorylation • H+ ions flow through inner membrane through ATP synthase to generate ATP • Proton-motive force

  32. Anaerobic Respiration Fermentation

  33. Pyruvate is the junction of catabolism

  34. Alcohol Fermentation • Anaerobic • Pyruvate converted ethyl alcohol • Bacteria and yeasts

  35. Lactic Acid Fermentation • Anaerobic • Pyruvate converted into lactate • Lactate carried to liver, converted back into pyruvate • Time

  36. CATABOLISM OF OTHER FOODS