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Culture and emotion

Culture and emotion

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Culture and emotion

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  1. Culture and emotion

  2. Hofstede’s approach • Power distance • Uncertainty avoidance • Individualism-collectivism • Masculinity-femininity • Bond: Based on Chinese data, added Confucian work dynamism (or Long-term orientation)

  3. What about levels in different countries?

  4. Schwartz world value survey • At individual level (10 values): • Openness to change vs. tradition • Self-enhancements vs. self-transcendence • http://changingminds.org/explanations/values/schwartz_inventory.htm • At nation level (7 values): • Autonomy-embeddedness • Hierarchy-egalitarianism • Mastery-harmony • http://www.imo-international.de/englisch/html/siebenwerte_en.html

  5. Other approaches • Smith et al. • Loyalty to organization vs. utilitarianism • Conservation vs. egalitarianism • Inglehart • Self-expression vs. survival • Rational-legal vs. traditional authority • Tight vs. Loose cultures (Gelfand et al., 2011) • How does this concept relate to the others? • Why are certain countries high or low? • What other effects might this have?

  6. Cultural differences in • Self-concept • Self-consistency (self-monitoring) • Self-enhancement • Approach/avoidance • Agency and control • Desire to fit in • Honor culture • Relationships • In vs out group • Friendship differences

  7. Cognition (Nisbett, Peng, Choi, & Norenzayan, 2001) • Analytic vs. holistic thinking • Attention to background • Reasoning styles • Attribution • How did these differences come about? • How are they maintained? • What are implications of these differences for research?

  8. Emotion • Basic emotions • Display rules • Intensity of emotions • Happiness • In-group advantage “emotion dialect”

  9. Emotions • Where do emotions come from and what is their purpose? • Appraisal theory • Relevance, congruence, responsibility, control, power • Interpret important event or object, give it meaning, get emotion • Critiques of appraisal theory • Schachter’s two-factor theory of emotion • Misattribution of arousal • Mood congruence

  10. Affect infusion model (Forgas) • Low infusion: direct access and motivated processing • High infusion: heuristic and substantive • Similarities to other dual process: HSM and ELM • How are emotions social? • Contagion of emotion vs. norms (bottom up vs. top down) • Unconscious emotion (subliminal faces) • Embodiment of emotion • Moral judgments: trustworthiness and dominance

  11. Affective forecasting (Wilson & Gilbert, 2003) • What are we good vs. bad at predicting? Why? • Durability bias • Impact bias • Misconstrual problem • Projection bias • Expectation effects • Focalism • Emotional evanescence • The role of sense making