EMOTION AND MOTIVATION. PAGES 297-357. Emotion vs. Reasoning. How do you describe emotions? How do you describe reasoning? Are the two mutually exclusive?. Emotion and Reasoning. Stating that emotion is the opposite of reason is a huge misconception.
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Emotional range: pleasantness-unpleasantness & weak-strong
Menshow more signs of physiological arousal during interpersonal conflicts than women
Womenare more likely to suffer from panic disorders and depression than men
Relays Nerve Signals to the Cerebral Cortex
Effect on emotional responses:
Effect on emotional responses:
But what comes first? The thought? The physiological arousal? The behavior? Or does emotion exist in a vacuum, whether or not these other components are present?
The James-Lange Theory
Facial Feedback Theory
The ability to:
Ex: to see cause and effect relationships such as how thoughts can affect emotions or how emotions can affect thoughts, and how your emotions can lead to the behavior in yourself and others.
Those who waited- more self reliant, better relationships, better students, better at handling conflict and stress
Those who did not wait- low opinions of themselves, high levels of mistrust, easily provoked by frustrations
* The results also correlated with SAT scores (210 pt difference)
Ex: The car salesperson trying to sell you a lemon
Ex: A poker player who has a good hand
1. Subjects are already under a lot of pressure (typically a suspect in a criminal case, or perhaps a guest on the Maury show) so they already have a heighted state of emotional arousal
2. Some people are very good at controlling their emotional responses
Ex: We see someone eat and assume their hunger drive is at work
We probably don’t consider other reasons they may be eating
-to gain weight
-because the meal was their favorite
-because of social pressure
-you get to work on time even though you had one hour of sleep the night before
-winning a football game despite a 20 point deficit in the fourth quarter
-A state of fluid deprivation triggers symptoms of feeling thirsty.
Ex: leisure activities
Ex: money, grades, praise
1 group rewarded for picture
1 group received no reward for drawing
Rewarded group= Much less enthusiastic about drawing again
Non-rewarded group= Even more enthusiastic about drawing than first time
Ex: Some professionals love their work
However, if a child does enjoy an activity, giving him or her a reward for a job WELL DONE, will further encourage the behavior.
( n Ach)
-how long it has been since you last ate
-whether you like pizza
-what time of day it is
-whether your friends are encouraging you to have a slice
-whether pizza is acceptable in your culture
1. Receptors in the brain monitor sugar and fat levels sending signals to the lateral hypothalamus
2. An internal biological “scale” informs the CNS when fat storage falls below a certain level. (set point)
3. Pressure detectors in the stomach signal fullness of feelings of emptiness, which send signals to the brain
4. Biological mechanisms give us certain preferences for sweet and high fat foods (this allowed our ancestors to survive)
5. Physical activity contributes to hunger and satiation. (Extreme exercise provokes hunger; moderate suppresses)
Rather than lack of will power, the following factors and now being researched;