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EMOTION AND MOTIVATION. PAGES 297-357. Emotion vs. Reasoning. How do you describe emotions? How do you describe reasoning? Are the two mutually exclusive?. Emotion and Reasoning. Stating that emotion is the opposite of reason is a huge misconception.

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emotion vs reasoning
Emotion vs. Reasoning
  • How do you describe emotions?
  • How do you describe reasoning?
  • Are the two mutually exclusive?
emotion and reasoning
Emotion and Reasoning
  • Stating that emotion is the opposite of reason is a huge misconception.
  • Emotion is a VITAL ingredient in making effective personal decisions.
  • Emotion allows us to value one course of action over another.
what is emotion
What is emotion?
  • Emotion is a four part process-all of which interact, rather than occurring in a linear sequence. Emotions help organisms deal with important events.
  • Emotions have evolved to help us respond to important situations to convey our intentions to others.
  • Emotion is a 4 part process consisting of

physiological arousal

cognitive interpretation

subjective feelings

behavioral expressions

psychological arousal
Psychological Arousal
  • Increased heart rate, blushing, becoming pale, sweating, rapid breathing
  • Ex: Being in a car when it spins out of control on an icy road
  • Almost instantly upon the car spinning off track, you experience an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, your pupils dilate, etc.
  • This occurs, at some level, with all emotions
cognitive interpretation
Cognitive Interpretation
  • The private experience of one’s internal affective state

Emotional range: pleasantness-unpleasantness & weak-strong

  • Ex: your boyfriend or girlfriend breaks up with you, you experience some type of emotion, like sadness.
  • Then, you experience this emotion along the pleasantness and strength dimensions - if you loved this person, you may experience sadness that is very unpleasant and intense (strength).
subjective feeling
Subjective feeling
  • Attaching meaning to the emotional experience by drawing on memory and perceptual responses such as blaming someone or perceiving a threat
  • Ex: You may think you are being cheated on due to your past experience with infidelity
behavioral expressions
Behavioral expressions
  • Expressing emotions through gestures, facial expressions, or other actions such as smiling, crying, screaming for help
  • Ex: These expressions allow others to know what we are feeling and, potentially, how to treat us
how motivation and emotion are linked
How Motivation and Emotion Are Linked
  • Emotion and motivation are complementary processes
  • Emotion emphasizes arousal (both physical and mental)
  • Motivation emphasizes how this arousal becomes an action
cultures and emotions
Cultures and Emotions
  • Emotional expressions may vary from culture to culture
  • Ex: Emotional responses in children in US versus Asian cultures
  • The 7 Universal Emotions: sadness, fear, anger, disgust, contempt, happiness, and surprise
emotional differences between men and women
Emotional Differences between men and women
  • Depends on culture and biology
  • Biology:

Menshow more signs of physiological arousal during interpersonal conflicts than women

Womenare more likely to suffer from panic disorders and depression than men

us culture
US Culture
  • Menare encouraged for their emotional displays of dominance, anger, and aggressive behavior and are punished for emotional displays such as crying, depression, and sadness.
  • Womenreceive encouragement for emotions that show vulnerability and are punished for displaying emotions that show dominance
display rules
Display rules
  • Are the permissible ways of displaying emotions within a society.
  • Research has proven that neither sex is more or less emotionally expressive overall and that culture differs emotional expression much more.
  • In all, men and women do have different emotional experiences, but one sex does not have more emotional intensity than the other
  • Write 1 to 13 on a sheet of paper and answer the following questions, writing down A or B for your answer
limbic system1
Limbic System
  • The area of the brain that regulates emotion and memory
  • Directly connects the lower and higher brain functions
  • Effect on emotional responses: Influences emotional responses, fight-or-flight responses, unconscious and conscious emotion processing pathways
reticular formation a group of nerve fibers located inside the brainstem
Reticular Formation: A group of nerve fibers located inside the brainstem




Cardiac Reflexes

Motor Functions

Regulates Awareness

Relays Nerve Signals to the Cerebral Cortex


  • Effects on emotional responses: Monitors incoming information; acts as an alarm system
cerebral cortex1
Cerebral Cortex
  • The cerebral cortex plays a key role in memory, attention, perceptual awareness, thought, language, and consciousness
  • Effects on emotional responses: Interprets events and associates them with memories and feelings
autonomic nervous system1
Autonomic Nervous System

Effect on emotional responses:

  • Sympathetic- dominates unpleasant emotions
  • Parasympathetic- dominates pleasant emotions
example car speeding directly at you
Example: car speeding directly at you
  • Brain alerts body of danger along pathways of SNS.
  • Some messages direct adrenal glands to release stress hormones. Others make the heart race and blood pressure rise.
  • At the same time, the SNS directs certain blood vessels to constrict, diverting voluntary energy to the voluntary muscles and away from the stomach and intestines (knot in your stomach)
  • When the emergency has passed, the PNS takes over, carrying instruction to counteract the emergency orders of a few moments earlier
  • You may experience arousal for a few moments after due to hormones continuing to circulate in your bloodstream

Effect on emotional responses:

  • Serotonin- associated with feelings of depression
  • Epinephrine- hormone produced in fear
  • Norepinephrine- most abundant in anger
5 theories of emotion
5 Theories of emotion
  • The definition of emotion refers to a feeling state involving thoughts, physiological changes, and an outward expression or behavior. 

But what comes first?  The thought?  The physiological arousal?  The behavior?  Or does emotion exist in a vacuum, whether or not these other components are present?

  • There are five theories which attempt to understand why we experience emotion
theories of emotion
Theories of Emotion
  • There is a lot of debate within the world of Psychology regarding the process of emotional arousal.
  • We will look at the five main theories of emotion, which attempt to explain why and how we experience emotion.

The Cannon-Bard Theory

Schachter-Singer Theory

The James-Lange Theory

Lazarus Theory

Facial Feedback Theory

  • Write 1 to 13 on a sheet of paper and answer the following questions, writing down A or B for your answer
the james lange theory of emotion
The James-Lange theory of emotion
  • Argues that an event causes physiological arousal first and then we interpret this arousal.  Only after our interpretation of the arousal can we experience emotion.  If the arousal is not noticed or is not given any thought, then we will not experience any emotion based on this event.
  • EX: You are walking down a dark alley late at night.  You hear footsteps behind you and you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens.  You notice these physiological changes and interpret them as your body's preparation for a fearful situation.  You then experience fear.
the cannon bard theory
The Cannon-Bard theory
  • Argues that we experience physiological arousal and emotional at the same time, but gives no attention to the role of thoughts or outward behavior.  
  • EXAMPLE:  You are walking down a dark alley late at night.  You hear footsteps behind you and you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens.  At the same time as these physiological changes occur you also experience the emotion of fear.
schachter singer theory
Schachter-Singer Theory
  • According to this theory, an event causes physiological arousal first.  You must then identify a reason for this arousal and then you are able to experience and label the emotion.
  • EXAMPLE:  You are walking down a dark alley late at night.  You hear footsteps behind you and you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens.  Upon noticing this arousal you realize that is comes from the fact that you are walking down a dark alley by yourself.  This behavior is dangerous and therefore you feel the emotion of fear.
lazarus theory
Lazarus Theory
  • States that a thought must come before any emotion or physiological arousal.  In other words, you must first think about your situation before you can experience an emotion.
  • EXAMPLE:  You are walking down a dark alley late at night.  You hear footsteps behind you and you think it may be a mugger so you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens and at the same time experience fear.
facial feedback theory
Facial Feedback Theory
  • Emotion is the experience of changes in our facial muscles.  In other words, when we smile, we then experience pleasure, or happiness.  When we frown, we then experience sadness.  It is the changes in our facial muscles that cue our brains and provide the basis of our emotions.  Just as there are an unlimited number of muscle configurations in our face, so to are there a seemingly unlimited number of emotions.
  • EXAMPLE:  You are walking down a dark alley late at night.  You hear footsteps behind you and your eyes widen, your teeth clench and your brain interprets these facial changes as the expression of fear.  Therefore you experience the emotion of fear
4 components of emotional intelligence
4 components of emotional intelligence

The ability to:

  • accurately identify emotions
  • use emotions to help you think
  • understand what causes emotions
  • manage to stay open to these emotions in order to capture the wisdom of our feelings
1 accurately identify emotions
1. Accurately identify emotions
  • The ability to perceive and identify emotions in faces, tone of voice, body language
  • The capacity for self-awareness: being aware of your own feelings as they are occurring
  • Being able to label specific feelings in yourself and others; being able to discuss emotions and communicate clearly and directly.
2 using emotions to help you think
2. Using emotions to help you think
  • The ability to incorporate feelings into analysis, reasoning, problem solving and decision making
  • The potential of your feelings to guide you to what is important to think about
3 understanding what causes emotions
3. Understanding what causes emotions
  • The ability to solve emotional problems
  • The ability to identify and understand the inter-relationships between emotions, thoughts and behavior.

Ex: to see cause and effect relationships such as how thoughts can affect emotions or how emotions can affect thoughts, and how your emotions can lead to the behavior in yourself and others.

4 managing to stay open to these emotions in order to capture the wisdom of our feelings
4. Managing to stay open to these emotions in order to capture the wisdom of our feelings
  • The ability to take responsibility for one's own emotions and happiness
  • The ability to turn negative emotions into positive learning and growing opportunities
  • The ability to help others identify and benefit from their emotions
emotional intelligence
Emotional Intelligence
  • The ability to understand and control emotional responses.
the marshmallow test
The marshmallow test
  • 4 year olds
  • Wait for errands +2 marshmallows
  • Refuse to wait+ 1 marshmallow now
  • Results:

Those who waited- more self reliant, better relationships, better students, better at handling conflict and stress

Those who did not wait- low opinions of themselves, high levels of mistrust, easily provoked by frustrations

* The results also correlated with SAT scores (210 pt difference)

what does this tell us
What does this tell us?
  • EI is not a perfect predictor for success, and it should not be a replacement for traditional IQ tests.
  • EI is important to understanding emotional stability and success, but is merely one factor that helps us refine our understanding of our behaviors.
deception detection1
Deception detection
  • What are some clues or cues you believe help determine is someone is lying to you?
what the research shows
What the research shows
  • Most of us are actually pretty bad at detecting deception
  • The key to effective deception detection lies in perceiving patterns of a person’s behavior over time
  • Without the chance of repeated observations, you are much less likely to be able to accurately judge a person’s honesty.
1 lies involving false information
1. Lies involving false information

Look for

  • Dilated pupils, (a result of heightened attention)
  • Longer pauses in speech (a result of attempting to choose words carefully)
  • More constrained movements and gestures (an attempt to not give away the truth)

Ex: The car salesperson trying to sell you a lemon

2 lies involving hiding one s true feelings
2. Lies involving hiding one’s true feelings

Look for

  • Shifts in speech, speech errors, and nervous gestures (touching or stroking hair or face)
  • Shrugging (as if to dismiss the lie)

Ex: A poker player who has a good hand

other indicators of deception
Other indicators of deception
  • Rhythmic or calculated body movements ( often happen when the deceitful individual is concentrating too hard on controlling their facial expressions)
  • Trying to look happy or amused by smiling (the eyes tell all)
  • “Not looking you straight in the eye” only an indicator for occasional liars. A seasoned liar can look anyone in the eye while lying.
the polygraph
The polygraph
  • Relies on the assumption that people will exhibit physical signs of emotional arousal while lying.
  • Measures physical arousal such as heart beat, breathing, respiration, and blood pressure
  • Often referred to as a lie detector, although it really just detects emotional arousal.
problems with the polygraph
Problems with the polygraph

1. Subjects are already under a lot of pressure (typically a suspect in a criminal case, or perhaps a guest on the Maury show) so they already have a heighted state of emotional arousal

problems with the polygraph1
Problems with the polygraph

2. Some people are very good at controlling their emotional responses

  • 3 truths and a lie
what is motivation
What is Motivation?
  • Defined as all the processes involved in starting, directing, and maintaining physical and psychological activities
  • Motivational processes determine which of many possible responses we will select at any moment---although the selection is not always deliberate one.
  • Motivation takes on many forms, but all involve inferred mental processes that select and direct our behavior.
the four ways psychologists use the concept of motivation
The Four Ways Psychologists Use The Concept of Motivation
  • Motivation connects observable behavior to internal states (making inferences as to the motive of a behavior)

Ex: We see someone eat and assume their hunger drive is at work

We probably don’t consider other reasons they may be eating

-to gain weight

-because the meal was their favorite

-because of social pressure

2 motivation accounts for variability in behavior
2. Motivation Accounts For Variability In Behavior
  • Psychologists use various explanations when there are variations in performance not obviously due to the individual’s mental or physical abilities.
  • Ex:
  • intensity of your motivation may explain why you do well at a sport one day, and poorly another day
  • intensity of motivation may also explain why athletes of comparable skill level do not always perform the same
3 motivation explains perseverance despite adversity
3. Motivation explains perseverance despite adversity
  • Motivation helps us understand why individuals continue to perform reliably even under difficult or variable conditions.
  • Ex:

-you get to work on time even though you had one hour of sleep the night before

-winning a football game despite a 20 point deficit in the fourth quarter

4 motives relate biology to behavior
4. Motives Relate Biology To Behavior
  • We have complex internal mechanisms that automatically regulate bodily functions to promote survival.
  • Ex:

-A state of fluid deprivation triggers symptoms of feeling thirsty.

types of motivation1
  • Psychologists distinguish between a motive and a drive
  • Drive: biologically instigated motivation, or motivation involved in either survival or reproduction (ex: hunger, thirst)
  • Motive: motivational processes that are learned (success in a video game, getting an A on a test)
  • Many motivated behaviors (eating, drinking, sexual behavior) have roots in both biology and learning
intrinsic motivation
Intrinsic motivation
  • The desire to engage in an activity for its own sake, rather than for an external consequence such as a reward.

Ex: leisure activities

  • Intrinsic motivation comes arises from inner qualities such as personality traits or special interests.
extrinsic motivation
Extrinsic Motivation
  • The desire to engage in an activity to achieve an external consequence, such as a reward.

Ex: money, grades, praise

unconscious and conscious motivation
  • Conscious motivation: having a desire to engage in an activity and being aware of why
  • Unconscious motivation: having a desire to engage in an activity but being consciously unaware of the desire (Freud)
1 instinct theory
1. Instinct Theory
  • Motivation is derived strictly from our biological make-up
  • We are born with particular innate knowledge and reflexes which promote survival (fixed action patterns)
  • Ex: crying allows a human to survive
  • Outdated theory- completely ignored learning
2 drive reduction theory
2. Drive Reduction Theory
  • Humans have internal biological needs which motivate us to perform a certain way (often cause tension and arousal)
  • We reduce these drives so that we may maintain a sense of internal calmness.
  • Ex: internal feelings of hunger or thirst, which motivates us to eat or drink
3 arousal theory
3. Arousal Theory
  • We are driven to maintain a certain level of arousal (emotional, intellectual, physical) in order to feel comfortable
  • We need a balanced amount of arousal and tension
  • Ex: explains why people climb mountains, go to school, or watch sad movies
4 psychoanalytic theory
4. Psychoanalytic theory
  • Everything we do, every thought we have, and every emotion we experience has one of two goals: to help us survive or to prevent our destruction
  • Ex: we go to school for survival and want criminals locked away to prevent destruction
5 humanistic theory
5. Humanistic Theory
  • Humans are driven to achieve their maximum potential and will always do so unless obstacles are placed in their way. 
  • Obstacles = hunger, safety, or anything else that takes our focus away from maximum psychological growth
  • Ex: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
self actualization
Self Actualization
  • Throughout our lives, we work toward achieving the top of the pyramid, self actualization, or the realization of all of our potential.
  • According to Maslow, nobody has ever reached the peak of his pyramid.  We all may strive for it and some may even get close, but no one has achieved full self-actualization. 
  • Self-actualization means a complete understanding of who you are, a sense of completeness, of being the best person you could possibly be.
  • To have achieved this goal is to stop living, for what is there to strive for if you have learned everything about yourself, if you have experienced all that you can, and if there is no way left for you to grow emotionally, intellectually, or spiritually.  
  • Write down 3 past events, 3 events of the present, and 2 future events (your thinking homework last night)
  • Within each column you will determine what type of motivation took (or will take) place as well as which of the 5 theories of motivation fits into your life event. EXPLAIN your answers.
  • You will present 4 of our life events to the class tomorrow using at least 1 past,1 present, and 1 future event.
  • Written assignment= 40 points
  • Presentation= 20 points
in groups
In Groups
  • You are now owners of your own for-profit business. Your company has not been doing as well as expected. You set a deadline of one year for your company to turn itself around. In order to do this you decide to come up with an incentive plan for your employees. Discuss your incentive plan with your business partners. Explain the reason why you believe your incentive plan will work.
how rewards can sometimes squelch motivation
How Rewards can (sometimes) Squelch Motivation
  • Think about your life events that are/were intrinsically motivated.
  • Would attaching a reward to the events make the activity even more---or less– enjoyable?
  • 2 groups of children who liked drawing pictures

1 group rewarded for picture

1 group received no reward for drawing

  • Days later the children were asked to perform the same task.

Rewarded group= Much less enthusiastic about drawing again

Non-rewarded group= Even more enthusiastic about drawing than first time


  • The process by which extrinsic rewards can sometimes displace internal motivation.
  • In the picture drawing experiment, an intrinsic motivation turned extrinsic in the reward group. This squelched motivation days later.
  • Joy becomes work
a justification for rewards
A Justification For Rewards
  • Rewards do not always interfere with intrinsic motivation.

Ex: Some professionals love their work

  • Research beyond the picture drawing experiment shows rewards only harm intrinsic motivation when there is no regard for the quality of performance.
  • In the business world- year end bonuses for all employees hurt motivation. Bonuses based on performance help.
  • Parenting- If a child does not like an activity (washing dishes, studying), no amount of reward will make him or her enjoy it.

However, if a child does enjoy an activity, giving him or her a reward for a job WELL DONE, will further encourage the behavior.

in groups1
In Groups
  • Based on what the research shows, how effective was your incentive plan? Why was it effective or ineffective?
  • Based on what the research shows, how should teachers reward their students?
Look at the picture. Your task is to write a complete story about the picture. This should be an imaginative story with a beginning, middle, and an end. Try to portray who the people might be, what they are feeling, thinking, and wishing. Try to tell what led to the situation depicted in the picture and how everything will turn out in the end.
Look at the picture. Your task is to write a complete story about the picture. This should be an imaginative story with a beginning, middle, and an end. Try to portray who the people might be, what they are feeling, thinking, and wishing. Try to tell what led to the situation depicted in the picture and how everything will turn out in the end.
thematic appreciation test tat
Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT)
  • Psychologists Henry Murray and David McClelland
  • Historically, it has been among the most widely researched, taught, and used of such tests.
  • The TAT taps a subject's unconscious to reveal repressed aspects of personality, motives and needs for achievement, power and intimacy, and problem-solving abilities.
  • Each story represents a projection of the respondent’s psychological needs
  • It is assumed the stories will reflect themes that are psychologically important for the story teller.
  • From responses to the TAT pictures, we can calculate a individuals need for achievement

( n Ach)

scoring the writing
Scoring the Writing
  • Were there themes of motivation in your story? If so, what were these themes? Intrinsic/extrinsic, conscious/unconscious?
  • Was the story optimistic or pessimistic? Hopeful or doubtful?
  • Does the character have control over his/her life or actions?

**Violin example

scoring your tat
Scoring Your TAT
  • High nAch: more persistence on difficult tasks, better grades, higher IQs, take more competitive jobs, assume more leadership roles, earn more rapid promotions
  • Low n Ach take the opposite approach and/or roles
need for achievement
Need for Achievement
  • People with a high n Ach seek to excel and thus tend to avoid both low-risk and high-risk situations.
  • Achievers avoid low-risk situations because the easily attained success is not a genuine achievement.
  • In high-risk projects, achievers see the outcome as one of chance rather than one's own effort.
  • High n Ach individuals prefer work that has a moderate probability of success, ideally a 50% or greater chance. Achievers need regular feedback in order to monitor the progress of their achievements. They prefer either to work alone or with other high achievers.
the brain combines many kinds of hunger related information
The Brain combines many kinds of hunger related information
  • Energy requirements
  • Nutritional state
  • Food preferences
  • Food cues
  • Cultural demands
  • Your readiness to eat pizza depends on

-how long it has been since you last ate

-whether you like pizza

-what time of day it is

-whether your friends are encouraging you to have a slice

-whether pizza is acceptable in your culture

you brain combines hunger related information of many kinds they are
You brain combines hunger related information of many kinds; they are

1. Receptors in the brain monitor sugar and fat levels sending signals to the lateral hypothalamus

2. An internal biological “scale” informs the CNS when fat storage falls below a certain level. (set point)


3. Pressure detectors in the stomach signal fullness of feelings of emptiness, which send signals to the brain

4. Biological mechanisms give us certain preferences for sweet and high fat foods (this allowed our ancestors to survive)

5. Physical activity contributes to hunger and satiation. (Extreme exercise provokes hunger; moderate suppresses)

set point
Set point
  • The tendency for our body to maintain a certain level of body fat and body weight
how do we know the set point does not always keep weight in a desirable range
How do we know the set point does not always keep weight in a desirable range?
  • Because some people are obese or underweight
2 examples of how our emotional states encourage or discourage eating
2 examples of how our emotional states encourage or discourage eating
  • We tend not to eat when we are fearful
  • Stress and/or depression can cause people to either eat more or eat less
2 examples of how situational factors may encourage eating
2 examples of how situational factors may encourage eating
  • You are hungry when you look at the clock and notice it is lunchtime
  • Snacking when watching TV
2 examples of how our cultural factors encourage or discourage eating
2 examples of how our cultural factors encourage or discourage eating
  • US- social norm is thinness
  • Oceania- social norm dictates larger bodies are more attractive
anorexia nervosa
Anorexia Nervosa
  • Usually diagnosed when a person weighs less than 85% of their desirable body weight and still worries about being fat.
bulimia nervosa
Bulimia Nervosa
  • Characterized by periods of binge eating followed by purging measures, which may include vomiting, fasting, or using laxatives.
assumption regarding anorexia and bulimia
Assumption regarding anorexia and Bulimia
  • The idea that social pressures cause these diseases are now being questioned.
new research is attempting to prove
New research is attempting to prove
  • Genetic factors play a strong role
weight control
Weight control

Rather than lack of will power, the following factors and now being researched;

  • Lack of exercise
  • Poor diet
  • Genetic factors
what conclusion has hunger and weight control studies drawn
What conclusion has hunger and weight control studies drawn?
  • There is no single diet, eating plan, surgery, medicine, etc…that has proven to be effective for long term weight loss