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Motivation and Emotion. Theories of Motivation. 1 – Instinct Theory Innate tendencies or biological forces that determine behavior

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Theories of motivation
Theories of Motivation

  • 1 – Instinct Theory

    • Innate tendencies or biological forces that determine behavior

      • In animals, we look at a fixed action pattern – where an innate biological force predisposes an organism to behave in a certain way under certain environmental conditions


  • 2 – Drive-Reduction Theory

  • States that a need results in a drive, which is a state of tension that motivates the organism to act to reduce the tension and return the body to homeostasis

  • Homeostasis – tendency for the body to return and remain in a more balanced physiological state


Drive reduction theory cont d
Drive-Reduction theory cont’d

  • There are two types of drives in this theory:

    • Primary drives: biological needs – same for everyone

    • Secondary drives: learned needs – vary from person to person


Incentive theory

3. Incentive theory

States that an organism’s behavior is motivated by external stimuli, such as reinforcers or rewards.

Different from the cognitive theory because this is more behavioral

Behavior driven by desire, not need

Incentive theory


  • 4. – Arousal theory –

    • When level of stimulation drops below the organism’s optimum level, the organism will seek ways of increasing the stimulation. Those with a high need for arousal will seek exciting experiences, called sensation-seekers – often get bored and may be unable to restrain impulses

    • When level of stimulation exceeds optimal level, the organism will seek ways of decreasing the stimulation


Arousal theory cont d

This theory may explain behaviors that don’t appear driven by biological factors

Why do some people feel the need to drive fast or ride on roller coasters? What is the drive behind this need? Some call it sensation-seeking

Arousal theory cont’d


Arousal and performance
Arousal and Performance by biological factors

  • Yerkes-Dodson Law

    • People perform best under moderate conditions of arousal – that is, a little anxiety or stress goes a long way for people

    • However, too little arousal or too much arousal may hinder performance


Maslow s hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs by biological factors


What makes us hungry
What makes us hungry? by biological factors

  • Biological perspective – Brain mechanisms involved in eating behavior

    • Lateral hypothalamus–when stimulated the organism eats, when destroyed the animal starves

    • Ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus-when stimulated, the animal stops eating, but when lesioned the animal continuously eats (hyperphagia)


Study the diagram and see if you can see why the system - as set out in the diagram - might not maintain homeostasis.


  • Neuropeptide Y(neurotransmitter)-too much in your system may trigger one to binge eat-especially carbohydrates

  • Leptin is a chemical released by the brain that curbs appetite – reduces brain’s production of neuropeptide Y

  • It is believed that dopamine and endorphins may be released when eating behaviors occur – eating is associated with pleasant feelings

  • Serotonin-associated with feelings of being full


Other biological factors
Other biological factors trigger one to binge eat-especially carbohydrates

  • Set point – the tendency for the body to remain at the same weight over a period of time. May fluctuate by a few pounds, but centers around that set point

  • Metabolic rate – those with higher rates will burn calories quicker, while those with lower rates burn calories slower


What makes us hungry1
What makes us hungry? trigger one to binge eat-especially carbohydrates

  • Behavioral perspective –

    • Learned preferences – whatever you have in your environment is what you will get used to eating and will become a part of your diet

    • Food-related cues – smells, sights, sounds, etc. may stimulate hunger

    • Stress – need I say more? Stress keeps Ben and Jerry’s in business


Social cultural influence
Social-Cultural Influence trigger one to binge eat-especially carbohydrates

  • Cultural changes and influences affect a population’s overall weight issues

  • Some countries used to be very healthy, but currently are experiencing many health problems – e.g., Czech Republic, China

  • American culture tends to put a lot of pressure on women to be thin. This has led many women to overestimate their weight – may contribute to eating disorders


Personality traits
Personality Traits trigger one to binge eat-especially carbohydrates

  • People with these personality traits have been associated with overeating:

    • Being overly sensitive to rejection

    • Being excessively concerned about approval from others

    • Having high personal standards for achievement

    • Having suffered from physical or sexual abuse

    • Having suffered from depression, anxiety, mood swings


Sex and gender
Sex and Gender trigger one to binge eat-especially carbohydrates

  • Sex refers to the biological aspects of being male or female (and the physical acts of intercourse/masturbation)

    • Sex differences are physical differences

  • Gender refers to the psychological and sociocultural meanings added to biological sex

    • Gender differences result from people’s thinking about gender


Gender dimensions

Gender Dimensions Male Female trigger one to binge eat-especially carbohydrates

8. Gender identity Perceives self Perceives self

as male as female

9. Gender role Masculine Feminine

Gender identity is self-defined

Gender role is socially-defined

Gender Dimensions


Determinants of gender identity
Determinants of Gender Identity trigger one to binge eat-especially carbohydrates

  • Gender identity refers to the personal view of oneself as male or as female

  • Environmental factors were assumed to be central determinants of gender identity (John Money)

    • The case of the castrated identical twin whose gender identity was reassigned following a botched circumcision was taken as important evidence for the role of environmental factors

      • Problem: he later rejected the reassignment and took on a male gender identity (now this case supports a biological view of gender identity)


Gender role development
Gender Role Development trigger one to binge eat-especially carbohydrates

  • Gender roles are societal expectations for normal and appropriate female and male behavior

    • Social-learning theory argues that gender roles develop as children:

      • receive rewards/punishments for gender role behaviors

      • watch and imitate the behaviors of others


Psychology of sexual behavior

Kinsey report – trigger one to binge eat-especially carbohydrates

Kinsey Scale – ranged from 0-6 where a 0 was exclusively heterosexual and a 6 was exclusively homosexual

Kinsey interviewed people to obtain their views on sexual behavior

Psychology of sexual behavior


Kinsey scale
Kinsey Scale trigger one to binge eat-especially carbohydrates


Sexual orientation
Sexual Orientation trigger one to binge eat-especially carbohydrates

  • Homosexuality may reflect the impact of biological factors on sexual orientation

    • Biological factors are supported by twin studies that suggest genetic influence on sexual orientation

  • Homosexuality does not reflect

    • Poor parenting: smothering mother, detached father

    • Arrested development or an immature personality

    • Childhood seduction by adults

    • Modeling of homosexual behaviors and views from others


Masters and johnson

4 Phases of Sexual Development trigger one to binge eat-especially carbohydrates

Excitement

Plateau

Orgasm

Resolution Period

Refractory period

Masters and Johnson


Masters and johnson1

Wanted to understand the sexual responses of males and females to see how they are different

Wanted to understand why some people don’t respond in a typical fashion – sexual disorders

Masters and Johnson


Hormones and sexuality

While estrogen and testosterone are produced in males and females:

Estrogen is found in higher amounts in females

Testosterone found in higher amounts in males

Testosterone is responsible for a person’s libido, so when levels drop, so does sexual desire

As people age, their levels drop so males and females may have less desire, for a….ya know!

Hormones and sexuality


In women who have had their ovaries removed, their testosterone levels drop by half

Women who are on estrogen replacement therapy will also see their levels drop


Sexual dysfunctions
Sexual Dysfunctions testosterone levels drop by half

  • Male sexual problems

    • Impotence (inability to maintain an erection)

    • Premature ejaculation

  • Male and Female

    • Dyspareunia (painful intercourse)

    • Inhibited desire

    • Sexual aversion

  • Female

    • Orgasmic dysfunction

    • Vaginismus (painful contraction of the vaginal muscles)


Drug actions on sexuality
Drug Actions on Sexuality testosterone levels drop by half

  • Alcohol: Reduced testes size and suppressed hormone function

  • Cocaine: Erectile disorder, inhibited orgasm, lowered sperm counts

  • Barbiturates: Reduced desire, erectile disorder, delayed orgasm

  • Marijuana: Reduced testosterone levels, reduced desire

  • Tobacco: Decreases the frequency and duration of erections and of vaginal lubrication


Motivation at work
MOTIVATION AT WORK testosterone levels drop by half

“Treat others as you would like to be treated”

  • How do human needs influence motivation to work?

  • How do thought processes and decisions affect motivation to work?

  • What role does reinforcement play in motivation?


Human needs
Human Needs testosterone levels drop by half

  • Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory

    • Hygiene Factor

      • is found in the job context, such as working conditions, interpersonal relations, organizational policies, and salary.

    • Motivator Factor

      • is found in job content, such as a sense of achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, or personal growth.


Expectancy theory
Expectancy Theory testosterone levels drop by half

  • people are motivated because they want to satisfy needs

  • know that if they put forth some level of effort, their needs will be satisfied

  • Show workers that if they work hard, their needs will be satisfied


Motivation human needs
MOTIVATION testosterone levels drop by halfHuman Needs

  • McClelland’s Acquired Needs

    • Need for Achievement

      • is the desire to do something better, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks.

    • Need for Power

      • is the desire to control, influence, or be responsible for other people.

    • Need for Affiliation

      • Is the desire to establish and maintain good relations with other people.


Motivation thought processes and decisions
MOTIVATION testosterone levels drop by halfThought Processes and Decisions

  • Adams’ Equity Theory

    • Explains how social comparisons can motivate individual behavior

    • Any perceived inequities will motivate us to behave in a manner that will change them


Motivation
MOTIVATION testosterone levels drop by half

  • Locke’s Goal-setting Theory

    • emphasizes the motivational power of goals that are specific and challenging.

MANAGEMENT TIPS

• Set specific goals—avoid more generally stated ones, such as “Do your best.”

• Set challenging goals—when realistic and attainable, they motivate better than easy ones.

• Build commitment—people work harder for goals they accept and believe in.

• Clarify priorities—expectations should be clear on which goals to pursue first.

• Provide feedback—people need to know how well they are doing.

• Reward results—don’t let accomplishments pass unnoticed.


Motivation at work1
Motivation at Work testosterone levels drop by half

  • 360-degree feedback


Motivation1
Motivation testosterone levels drop by half

  • Task Leadership

    • goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals

  • Social Leadership

    • group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support


Motivation2
Motivation testosterone levels drop by half

  • Theory X

    • assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money

    • workers should be directed from above

  • Theory Y

    • assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity


Theories of emotion
Theories of emotion testosterone levels drop by half

  • You hear a car backfire – What would the James-Lange theory say would be the changes you would experience?

  • 1. James-Lange

    • A. Person has a physiological change, usually the sympathetic nervous system is activated

    • B. James-Lange stated that there are different physiological responses for different emotions



James lange
James-Lange physiological patterns


Theories of emotion1
Theories of Emotion physiological patterns

  • What would be the sequence of events according to Cannon-Bard after hearing the car backfire?

  • 2. Cannon-Bard-there is a stimulus, then subcortical activity and then the subjective experience of an emotion and bodily reactions occur simultaneously.

  • State that emotions are NOT caused by physiological changes


Cannon bard
Cannon-Bard physiological patterns


Theories of emotion2
Theories of Emotion physiological patterns

  • What would be the sequence of events according to Schachter after hearing the car backfire?

  • 3. Schachter-Singer (two-factor)

    • States that there is physiological arousal

    • We then do a cognitive appraisal of the arousal in terms of what it means

    • We then experience an emotional feeling and then express behaviors that match those emotions


Schacter singer two factor
Schacter-Singer (two-factor) physiological patterns


Robert zajonc
Robert Zajonc physiological patterns

  • Says we have emotions before we label them

  • Says we must feel the emotions before we can label them

  • Research seems to back up that the brain interprets emotion before cognition



Facial feedback hypothesis
Facial Feedback Hypothesis identified six basic emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, and disgust. Worldwide, most people can identify the facial expressions that correspond to these emotions.

  • The brain uses feedback from facial muscles to recognize emotions that are being experienced.

  • Making the facial expression corresponding to a particular emotion can make a person feel that emotion


Children and facial expressions
Children and facial expressions identified six basic emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, and disgust. Worldwide, most people can identify the facial expressions that correspond to these emotions.

  • children aren't more likely to read more negative content into emotions

  • They are very good at identifying the ones they do see

  • Children tend to be better at labeling the emotions of faces than older people



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