Grammar – Unit 2 Lessons 18 - 28 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Grammar – Unit 2 Lessons 18 - 28

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  1. Grammar – Unit 2 Lessons 18 - 28 Parts of Speech Part 2

  2. NOUNS A noun is a person, place , or thing NOTE: Things can be concrete – like rocks or books or abstract ideas like courage or purpose. • Two types of NOUNS: • Proper Nouns • Common Nouns

  3. verb links shows action helps A ________ is a word that ________________, _____ another verb to a subject , _______ another verb or merely indicates ___________. existence

  4. Mood Verbs can be: • commanding (imperative) • matter-of-fact (indicative) • doubtful or wishful (subjunctive)

  5. subjunctive indicative imperative COMMANDING MATTER-OF-FACT DOUBTFUL or WISHFUL Close that door! imperative Squiggly played volleyball by the sea. indicative I wish you were here. subjunctive

  6. Unit 2 - Lesson 18------

  7. Critical Question:What are antecedents and how do they relate to pronouns?

  8. Pronouns ! .

  9. Personal pronouns stand in for nouns.

  10. They’re like stuntmen. When nouns feel overworked, they call for pronouns

  11. pronouns—words like he,it, she, we, they, and so on.

  12. Antecedent The noun to which a pronoun refers.

  13. Facts About Antecedents Antecedents are always nouns – some are proper and some are common.

  14. Facts About Antecedents Most of the time Pronouns are used in a paragraph AFTER their antecedents.

  15. Summary • In a sentence or two, answer your critical question. What are antecedents and how do they relate to pronouns?

  16. Grammar Matters ------

  17. Unit 2 - Review Topic: Grammar

  18. Parts Of Speech • Nouns • Verbs • Pronouns

  19. Mood Verbs can be: • commanding (imperative) • matter-of-fact (indicative) • doubtful or wishful (subjunctive)

  20. indicative imperative subjunctive Squiggly ate a sandwich. If only I had a sandwich. Eat your sandwich.

  21. imperative indicative subjunctive Wash the dog. If only I had a dog. Andy bought a dog.

  22. pronouns— they take the place of nouns. words like he,it, she, we, they …

  23. Antecedent The noun to which a pronoun refers.

  24. Andy bought a dog, and then, he washed it. antecedents pronouns

  25. Unit 2 - Lesson 19------ Topic: Grammar

  26. Critical Question: What are verbals?

  27. Verbals like verbs… only different.

  28. 3 TYPES: Gerunds Participles Infinitives

  29. 3 TYPES of Verbals: NOUN ADJECTIVE NOUN, ADJECTIVE, ADVERB Gerunds Participles Infinitives

  30. Summary • In a sentence or two, answer your critical question.

  31. Unit 2 - Lesson 20------ Topic: Grammar

  32. Critical Question: What are a few facts about verbals?

  33. Gerund Acting isn’t as easy as it looks. If you add an –ingto a verb and use the word as a noun, that is a gerund. noun

  34. Acting lessons helped Aardvark land the lead role in the school play. Participle If you add an –ingto a verb and use the word as an adjective, it is called a participle. adjective

  35. Participlescan also be joined with helping verbs to function as a verb. • She was helping him. • We are jumping rope. • He is smiling today. verb

  36. Infinitives To act was his secret desire. An infinitive is a combination of the word to and a bare form of a verb: to go, to run, to split, and so on.

  37. Infinitives can function as: • Nouns • Adjectives • Adverbs To act was his desire. noun It is her time to shine. adjective She sprinted the last ten yards to secure the win. adverb

  38. gerund, participle, or infinitive??? g g • Aardvark’s singing almost deafened Squiggly. • After you finish this class, you will want everyone to read your writing. • The fallen leaves made a striking pattern. • He was singing before you called. • She wanted to explore. • He needed to believe in himself. p p i i

  39. Summary • In a sentence or two, answer your critical question.

  40. Grammar Matters ------

  41. Unit 2 - Lesson 21------ Topic: Grammar

  42. Parts of Speech • Nouns • Pronouns • Verbs • Verbals • Participle Gerund Infinitive

  43. Review Verbals –verb forms that function as another part of speech • Participle – “ing” – adjectives or a whole verb with a helper • Gerund – “ing” – nouns • Infinitive – “to + basic form of a verb” - nouns, adj, adv.

  44. ParticipleGerundInfinitive • He was sewing a button onto his coat. • The sewing machine was broken. • I like your writing. • He wanted to go to the park.

  45. Critical Question: What is a split infinitive?

  46. To Split or not to Split ???? • Some people believe that it is against the “rules” to split an infinitive • MYTH • AGAIN – Latin is to blame for the 19th Century rule . In Latin, there are no two word infinitives and so, it is impossible to split one. • Today though, most agree that it is OK to split infinitives

  47. Split infinitive …. Squiggly decided to quickly remove Aardvark’s cats. to remove • If you try to unsplit the verb, you might actually change the meaning of the sentence. Squiggly decided quickly to remove Aardvark’s cats. to remove How does this change the sentence? Squiggly decided to remove Aardvark’s cats quickly . to remove This would be the best rewrite, but it is not necessary.

  48. Split Infinitive???? To BOLDLY go . . . OK!

  49. Summary • In a sentence or two, answer your critical question.

  50. Grammar Matters ------