grammar unit 2 lessons 18 28 n.
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Grammar – Unit 2 Lessons 18 - 28 . Parts of Speech Part 2. NOUNS. A noun is a person, place , or thing. NOTE: Things can be concrete – like rocks or books or abstract ideas like courage or purpose. Two types of NOUNS: Proper Nouns Common Nouns . verb. links. shows action.

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nouns
NOUNS

A noun is a person, place , or thing

NOTE: Things can be concrete – like rocks or books

or

abstract

ideas like courage or purpose.

  • Two types of NOUNS:
    • Proper Nouns
    • Common Nouns
slide3

verb

links

shows action

helps

A ________ is a word that ________________, _____ another verb to a subject , _______ another verb or merely indicates ___________.

existence

slide4
Mood

Verbs can be:

  • commanding (imperative)
  • matter-of-fact (indicative)
  • doubtful or wishful (subjunctive)
imperative

subjunctive

indicative

imperative

COMMANDING MATTER-OF-FACT DOUBTFUL or WISHFUL

Close that door!

imperative

Squiggly played volleyball by the sea.

indicative

I wish you were here.

subjunctive

slide12
Antecedent

The noun to which a pronoun refers.

slide13

Facts About Antecedents

Antecedents are always nouns – some are proper and some are common.

slide14

Facts About Antecedents

Most of the time Pronouns are used in a paragraph AFTER their antecedents.

summary
Summary
  • In a sentence or two, answer your critical question.

What are antecedents and how do they relate to pronouns?

unit 2 review
Unit 2 - Review

Topic: Grammar

parts of speech
Parts Of Speech
  • Nouns
  • Verbs
  • Pronouns
slide19
Mood

Verbs can be:

  • commanding (imperative)
  • matter-of-fact (indicative)
  • doubtful or wishful (subjunctive)
imperative1

indicative

imperative

subjunctive

Squiggly ate a sandwich.

If only I had a sandwich.

Eat your sandwich.

indicative

imperative

indicative

subjunctive

Wash the dog.

If only I had a dog.

Andy bought a dog.

slide22

pronouns— they take the place of nouns.

words like he,it, she, we, they …

slide23
Antecedent

The noun to which a pronoun refers.

slide26

Critical Question:

What are verbals?

slide27
Verbals

like verbs…

only

different.

3 types
3 TYPES:

Gerunds

Participles

Infinitives

3 types of verbals
3 TYPES of Verbals:

NOUN

ADJECTIVE

NOUN, ADJECTIVE, ADVERB

Gerunds

Participles

Infinitives

summary1
Summary
  • In a sentence or two, answer your critical question.
gerund
Gerund

Acting isn’t as

easy as it looks.

If you add an –ingto a verb and use the word as a noun, that is a gerund.

noun

participle

Acting lessons helped Aardvark land the lead role in the school play.

Participle

If you add an –ingto a verb and use the word as an adjective, it is called a participle.

adjective

participles can also be joined with helping verbs to function as a verb
Participlescan also be joined with helping verbs to function as a verb.
  • She was helping him.
  • We are jumping rope.
  • He is smiling today.

verb

infinitives
Infinitives

To act was his secret desire.

An infinitive is a combination of the word to and a bare form of a verb: to go, to run, to split, and so on.

infinitives can function as
Infinitives can function as:
  • Nouns
  • Adjectives
  • Adverbs

To act was his desire.

noun

It is her time to shine.

adjective

She sprinted the last ten yards

to secure the win.

adverb

gerund participle or infinitive
gerund, participle, or infinitive???

g

g

  • Aardvark’s singing almost deafened Squiggly.
  • After you finish this class, you will want everyone to read your writing.
  • The fallen leaves made a striking pattern.
  • He was singing before you called.
  • She wanted to explore.
  • He needed to believe in himself.

p

p

i

i

summary2
Summary
  • In a sentence or two, answer your critical question.
parts of speech1
Parts of Speech
  • Nouns
  • Pronouns
  • Verbs
    • Verbals
      • Participle Gerund Infinitive
review verbals verb forms that function as another part of speech
Review Verbals –verb forms that function as another part of speech
  • Participle – “ing” – adjectives or a whole verb with a helper
  • Gerund – “ing” – nouns
  • Infinitive – “to + basic form of a verb” - nouns, adj, adv.
participle gerund infinitive
ParticipleGerundInfinitive
  • He was sewing a button onto his coat.
  • The sewing machine was broken.
  • I like your writing.
  • He wanted to go to the park.
slide45

Critical Question:

What is a split infinitive?

to split or not to split
To Split or not to Split ????
  • Some people believe that it is against the “rules” to split an infinitive
  • MYTH
  • AGAIN – Latin is to blame for the 19th Century rule . In Latin, there are no two word infinitives and so, it is impossible to split one.
  • Today though, most agree that it is OK to split infinitives
split infinitive
Split infinitive ….

Squiggly decided to quickly remove Aardvark’s cats.

to

remove

  • If you try to unsplit the verb, you might actually change the meaning of the sentence.

Squiggly decided quickly to remove Aardvark’s cats.

to remove

How does this change the sentence?

Squiggly decided to remove Aardvark’s cats quickly .

to remove

This would be the best rewrite, but it is not necessary.

split infinitive1
Split Infinitive????

To BOLDLY go . . .

OK!

summary3
Summary
  • In a sentence or two, answer your critical question.
parts of speech2
Parts of Speech
  • Nouns
  • Pronouns
  • Verbs
    • Verbals
      • Participle Gerund Infinitive
slide54

Participle – “ing” – adjectives or a whole verb with a helper

  • Gerund – “ing” – nouns
  • Infinitive – “to + basic form of a verb” - nouns, adj, adv.
participle gerund infinitive2
ParticipleGerundInfinitive
  • The sparring team won.
participle gerund infinitive3
ParticipleGerundInfinitive
  • Sparring is her favorite thing to do.
participle gerund infinitive4
ParticipleGerundInfinitive
  • She likes to spar.
critical question
Critical Question?
  • How can I write a sentence correctly using an antecedent and a pronoun?
pronouns1
Pronouns !!!

Personal Pronouns

Antecedent

Personal pronouns stand in for nouns. They’re like stuntmen. When nouns feel overworked, they call for pronouns—words like he,it, she, we they, and so on.

The noun to which the pronoun refers is called the antecedent.

slide62

Squiggly was late. He forgot to set the alarm.

The tree fell because it had been attacked by bugs.

Grammar girl is happy because she remembered to bring an eraser.

pronouns are vital
Pronouns are VITAL~~~~~~~~~

Pronouns are vital. Try not using one for an hour, and you’ll see. I use them constantly as you can tell by these sentences.

Because pronouns come in different shapes and are used for different reasons some official grammar language is necessary. Ready?????

summary4
Summary
  • Write a creative sentence using an antecedent and its pronoun.
unit 2 lesson 231
Unit 2 - Lesson 23------

Critical Question: What are the three cases of pronouns?

pronouns and their cases
Pronouns and Their Cases

Pronouns are bunched together in three cases. (I do not know why the word “case” is used. Categories would work just as well, but officially they are called cases. Think of each case like a suitcase; it packs all the similar pronouns together.

subjective case
Subjective Case

The doer of the action; the one who acts

She ate fifty hot dogs.

(She did the eating, so she’s taking the action.)

objective case
Objective Case

The receiver of the action; the one who sits back and lets it all happen to her (or him).

The judge gave her the prize.

(Her received the prize and is the receiver of the action.)

possessive case
Possessive Case

Shows ownership

Her dog threw up on my shoes.

(Her indicates the dog belongs to a previously mentioned female.)

slide73
I

you

me

I …

is always and only a subject pronoun.

you …

can stand in for a subject or an object!!!

me …

is always and only a object pronoun.

You threw the beach ball.

Squiggly threw me.

I threw the beach ball.

Squiggly threw you.

slide74

NOTE

You also fills in for one person or many people (i.e., it’s a singular and a plural pronoun). I say “You should go to Disneyland,” I could be talking to one person or to a group of people. You should be standing in for Squiggly alone, or Squiggle, Aardvark and their families.

summary5
Summary
  • In a sentence or two, answer your critical question.