Chapter 10 Section 1 The rise of the Roman republic
The geography of italy • Italy is a peninsula. • Has 2 mountain ranges; The Alps at the top & The Appenines down the center of Italy. • Less rugged land than Greece. • Rivers for transportation • Large, flat plains for farming. Soil is rich due to volcanoes.
Historians don’t know how Rome was founded. Founded ~800 BC Ancient Romans believe Romulus, son of Mars, the god of war, founded the city or Rome. Rome is built on the Tiber River. Rome’s earliest days
The hills around Rome gave it a natural defense against attack. The river was not one that sea going ships could use, so it was safe from attack from sea. The city grows
Rome was 1st ruled by kings. Kings had lots of jobs; head of the army, supreme judge, head priest. Kings ruled with consent from the aristocracy. Wealthy old men made up the senate who helped advise the king. From monarchy to republic
The aristocrats got tired of the kings rules. When the 7th king of Rome, Tarquin the Proud, mistreated his people, he was overthrown and they formed a republic.
Roman Empire is made up of many different cultures. • Romans blended the Greek gods into their own gods. • The Etruscans were an advanced culture & the most powerful in Italy when Rome was founded. • They were skilled artisans, builders, sailors and traders. People of Italy
Romans were feared conquerors but they also used diplomacy. By 200 BC they controlled all of Italy. In battle on flat plains, maniples could join together and form a legion in a solid battle line. On rough country they can brake off and fight on their own. Roman expansion
Romans used new ideas as they took over new people. • The Gladius (short sword) came from Spain • Maniples were developed by the Samnites (central Italians) • Roman soldier built a temporary fort every night when on the move. • Built roads and bridges.