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Etruscan Heritage and the Rise of the Roman Republic

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  1. Etruscan Heritage and theRise of the Roman Republic Moving West In the Mediterranean World

  2. Etruscan Heritage and the Rise of Rome • Terms to be familiar with: • Etruria, Latium • Pietas, manus, paterfamilias, materfamilias, patrimonial, imperium, ancestor cult • Patrician, plebeian, nobiles, clientage • manumission, latifundia, & coloni. • Senate, Centuriate Assembly, Roman constitution, Consuls, Censors, Dictators, Struggle of the Orders, Twelve Tables I. Trade and the Rise of the Western Mediterranean World II. The Etruscans • Geography • Government • Society and Culture III. Roman Society • Legends • Family, Society, Religion • Government • Development and Structure

  3. Trade and the Mediterranean World 6th Century BC

  4. Trade Trade in Minerals: silver, copper & tin Pottery Perfumes Spices Wine Oil and Olives Wheat Amphorae to transport wine

  5. Map of Ancient Italy

  6. To Etruria The Importance of Trade Its Impact on Culture and Society

  7. Etrurian Government and Society

  8. Etruscans The Importance Of Death Barrows of Necropolis at Caere

  9. Etruscan tomb interiors

  10. Fresco from an Etruscan Tomb The Funeral Banquet

  11. Women in Etruscan Society • More Freedom than Greek Society • Not segregated from public • Evidence of matrilinealism Sculpture of Etruscan Woman

  12. Italy Places to be familiar With: Etruria Apennine Mountains Arno River Tiber River Latium Rome Sicily Carthage

  13. Rise of Rome The Early Romans • Legends • Family and Society • Government • Important terms: • Pietas, manus, paterfamilias, materfamilias, patrimonial, imperium, ancestor cult • Patrician, plebeian, nobiles, clientage • Manumission, latifundia, & coloni.

  14. The Legend of Rome Romulus and Remus

  15. Aeneas flees the sack of Troy carrying his father Anchises on his back

  16. Jacques-Louis David, The Oath of the Horatii (1784)

  17. Rise of Republic • Mid 8th century BC- 509 BC: Rome Ruled by Monarchy • 509 BC • Raids of Celts on Italy lead to expulsion of kings and founding of Roman Republic. • Rome distances itself from Etruria • 392 BC- Fall of Etruria to Rome

  18. Family and Society in Rome • Social Organization • Tribe • Clan • Family • Paterfamilias: Father held absolute power imperium, patria potestas and manus • Materfamilias: Mother’s influence in household • Naming conventions • For males • For females

  19. Rome as a Patrilineal Society Naming your son: Name of Individual: Gaius, Gnaeus Marcus, Lucius, Titus, Publius, Marcus Name of the Clan: Julius Licinius Cornelius Name of the Family: Caesar Crassus Scipio Your Son’s Name: Gaius Julius Caesar Marcus Licinius Crassus Publius Cornelius Scipio Naming your daughter: Name of Clan: Julius Name of daughter: Julia Second daughter: Julia secunda

  20. Family and Society in Rome Social Hierarchy • Patricians: Landowning Elite • Plebeians: Commoner • Not necessarily poor • Nobiles: By 3rd Cent. BC, elite of Patrician & Plebian • Slaves: At least 1/3 of pop. • Household vs.Agricultural Work • latifundia: “broad fields” • manumission: from manus • Coloni: Tenant Farmers • Serflike- tied to the land (bonded) Sculpted tomb of a family of ex-slaves [Note man holding tablets, pigeon, wife’s hairstyle. All indicate that family was both literate and stylish.]

  21. Ancestor Cult Role of Pietas: “I sought to equal the deeds of my father” Role of Ancestor Cult, Wax Masks, Marble Busts, and Funeral Rituals Virtues of Tradition and Respect

  22. Dimensions of Family and Virtue Marcus Porcius Cato (b. 234 BC) and his wife

  23. Family Politics and Marriage Women move from protection of fathers to protection of husbands (per manus) Usually with wealth came independence Fathers can act as agents to protect assets/dowry Example: Tullia (daughter of Marcus Tullius Cicero) Betrothed at 12, married at 16, widowed at 22 Example: Cornelia (aristocratic woman) Widowed/ intellectual/ bore 12 children 3 children lived (2 boys and 1 girl) Sons: Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus