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The Rise and Fall of the Roman Republic

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  1. The Rise and Fall of the Roman Republic 509-31 BCE

  2. Republic or Empire? “We are in a wilderness without a single footstep to guide us.” - James Madison, 1789 CE - expansion - slavery - political factions

  3. The Grandeur that Was Rome - language - civil law - religion

  4. I. On the banks of the Tiber: Origins No one is so intellectually sluggish as not to want to understand how the Romans – in less than fifty-three years – conquered, and how they now govern, practically the whole inhabited world…- Polybius, 201-120 BCE

  5. The Hero(ine) and History Aeneas and Dido The Aeneid- Virgil, 19 BCE Punic Wars Julio-Claudian Dynasty

  6. Romulus and Remus

  7. Birth of the Republic The Rape of LucretiaLivy 509 BCE, Tarquinio deposed

  8. A. Etruscan culture 1. Hydraulic society 2. divination / fate - Augurs- Pulcher and the chickensdivination

  9. B. Latium (Latin) • Seven Hills 753 BCE 2. Paterfamilias - name: common, gens, birth Gaius Julius Caesar Marcus Porcius Cato

  10. C. Class compromise 1 . Law of 12 Tables 451 BCE - patricians v. plebians “plebiscite”

  11. D. Consuls and Conquest 1. Political machinery - cursus honorum- Two Consuls served 1 year terms “Praetor” – “ military leader” military 305 BCE became a separate office and leaders then titled “CONSUL.”

  12. 2. Regional power- Roman-Italic Wars 493 - 396 – Latins & Etruscans- Roman-Gaulish War 390 - 387 – Celtic (Gaul) invasion- Samnite Wars 343 – 290 – Umbria- Pyrrhic War 280 - 275 – Greek (Pyrrhus)

  13. Paradox of Republican Rome Expand to survive… expand and die

  14. II. The Punic Wars 265 - 146 BCE Defining moment - Livy “eternal Rome” Rome becomes an empire, and loses its republic

  15. B. First Punic War 264 – 241 B.C.E. 1. Roman expansion beyond Italy Fight between Syracuse and Messina

  16. 2. Naval power- Battle of Drepana249 BCE Corvus (assault bridge)

  17. 3. Republic or Empire? - General Verres 120-43 BCE- Republican institutions inadequate

  18. C. Second Punic War218-202 BCE 1. Delenda est Carthago Cato the Elder

  19. 2. Italian campaigns218-203 BCE - Battle of Cannae216 BCE 70 K? Hannibal Barca

  20. 3. Romans victorious in Sicily (212) and Africa (202)- death of Archimedes- Battle of Zama Scipio Africanus

  21. D. Third Punic War 149-146 BCE 1. Classical conquests

  22. Legacy of the Punic Wars - empire gained, but at tremendous cost - opportunists disrupt republican machinery - strains on the paterfamilias

  23. III. Agrarian Republic Cultural Life after the Punic Wars

  24. A. Paterfamilias in peril 1. Spokesman of republican virtue Cato the Elder 234-139 BCE

  25. 2. Latifundia system - loss of land / citizenship - colonial economy - slave labor v. free labor

  26. B. Infirmitas Sexus 1. Republican mothers - divorce

  27. C. Rebellious sons • Paternal power • Adoption an option

  28. D. Slavery 1. Household to gang slavery - economic disparity

  29. 2. Spartacus’ revolt 73-71 BCE 3. Origins of dictatorship - Crassus, Pompey, Julius Caesar “I’m Spartacus”

  30. E. Equestrians 1. New money - officers, merchants, aristocrats of the empire 2. by-passed old orders- Gaius Gracchus

  31. F. Religion 1. Civic religion - Vestal Virgins 2. Familial gods, spirits - ancestor worship

  32. 3. New gods 4. Religion as dissent Cult of Bacchus Republic / Empire not bound by common religion

  33. IV. Fall of the Republic

  34. Persecution of Bacchus cult revealed deeper problems - growing class disparity; slavery - traditional male status in decline - no unifying public religion - Patricians hostile to any reform- “bread and circuses”

  35. A. Divided republic 1. Gracchus Brothers Tribunes Tiberius land reform d. 133Gaius expand citizenship d. 121 Undermined system → mob rule optimates v. populares

  36. B. “Special” Commanders 1. Marius 157-86 BCE- Numidian War 112 BCE- army v. republic- expanded citizenship populares

  37. 2. Social Wars 91 BCESulla 83-79 BCE Return to oligarchyCicero 106-43 BCEStoicism – duty to one’s role divine providence

  38. C. The “New” Men in power 1. First Triumvirate59 BC - Pompey, Crassus

  39. 2. Julius Caesar d. 44 BCE- Gallic conquests- “man of the people”- King?“Crossing the Rubicon”

  40. 3. The Egyptian “Witch”- Ptolemies- Ides of March, 44 BCE

  41. 4. Second Triumvirate 42 BCE - Octavian, Marc Antony, Lepidus - Battle of Actium 31 BCE

  42. D. The End of the Republic Octavian changes name to Caesar Augustus “Invisible Monarchy” Senate remains, but republic is lost

  43. VI. Rome in the Augustan Age

  44. Why an Emperor? • [Rhetorical] defense of Republican virtues • Reform / civic peace • The Pax Romana31 BCE - 192 CE

  45. A. Invisible monarchy • What’s in a name? - Consul, Augustus 27 BCE, Governor - Imperium Maius, imperator - princeps civitatus

  46. Reform the Senate 3. Build Equestrian class

  47. B. Army reform • Addition by subtraction - 60 to 28 legions - dispersal - Praetorian Guard

  48. 2. The Legionnaires - standing army / navy - long tours - chance for promotion - veterans benefits • The Auxiliaries - chance for citizenship Army was a crucial instrument in spreading influence

  49. C. Urbanization (sort of) • Rural West, urban East - soldiers’ colonies - road network • Little Romes - fusion of cultures - loyal patricians - bureaucracy

  50. D. Moral Regeneration • The “family values” Emperor - tax breaks for kids - stiff penalties for adultery, the unmarried 2. Pontifex maximus - cult of the Emperor