THE BRITISH RULE IN INDIA • British involvement began in the 1600s. • Traders explored the Indian coast. • Some traders formed the East India Company (very rich and powerful). • Robert Clive (1757) defeated the French and Britain gained control of India. • EIC rules India.
Sepoy Rebellion (1857) • Sepoys (Indian soldiers in British military) revolted. • Resentment over British imposing Christianity and European customs. • “The Grease Bullet Rumor” • Spread across Northern and Central India. Massacre of British. • British gov. takes control with viceroy (monarchs representatives).
Indian National Congress • Worked for independence for India from British rule.
China Faces the West • China had limited contact with West for 300 years. • Qing Dynasty weakened China. • British (early 1800s) begin trade with China. Paid for goods with opium.
The Opium War (1839-42) • Chinese tried to stop opium trade. • British refused. Attacked Chinese. • Britain had superior weapons. Won. • Treaty of Nanking (trading rights & Hong Kong).
China by 1890s • European powers as well as Japan divided China into spheres of influence. • Sphere of influence: area where they had exclusive trading rights. • Chinese resentment lead to formation of nationalistic groups—such as Righteous and Harmonious Fists (called Boxers by Europeans).
Revolution 1911 • Chinese begin to feel Qing Dynasty should be replaced with Republic. • Leads to Revolution 1911. • Sun Yet-Sen (leader). • Revolution leads to destruction of Qing Dynasty. • Sun Yet-Sen becomes leader of China (1912).
Modernization of Japan • Japan isolated from early 1600s. • Signed trading treaty with Perry. Shogun (ruler of Japan) saw what happened to China with Opium War. • Treaties favored foreign powers. Lead to overthrow of Shogun by new emperor known as the Meiji (enlightened emperor).
Modernization of Japan • Meiji realize they will need to modernize by building strong army and industrial base to compete with Western powers. • Japan (1870) began to modernize itself without any outside help. • 1905 defeats Russia in Russo-Japanese war. • By 1914, emerged as one of world’s industrial leaders.