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Imperialism in Asia • China and Japan
The Age of Imperialism 1750-1900
Imperialism – one country’s domination of the political, economic and/or social life of another country Background • Imperialism had existed since 1492. • Age of Exploration • The New World, colonies in South Asia, coasts of China & Africa • Little European influence on lives in these areas • European nations developed strong nations, militaries, and economies, thanks in part to industrialization.
Imperial Guards Imperial Army Imperial Means Empire • Diplomacy - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=og9tIQtmxko • Warfare - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yXCfEhW0R3k • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mMNINagFe-w
STOP and THINK!!! • “The necessity that is upon us [is] to provide for our ever-growing population – either by opening new fields for emigration, or by providing work and employment …and to stimulate trade by finding new markets.” Lord Lugard, The Rise of Our East African Empire Let’s analyze. Why take over other regions?
Reasons for Imperialism: Economic – raw materials for industrial revolution, trade, cheap labor, new markets Political – nationalism (pride and prestige), national security/border protection, military bases & source of troops Social – missionary (spread Christianity), social Darwinism (survival of the fittest applied to society; European society “the fittest); spread cultural values - racism/cultural superiority; white man’s burden (duty to civilize non-whites)
“New Imperialism” • a path of aggressive expansion • due to Europe’s new economic and military strength • due to it’s rapid industrialization • the need for natural resources (rubber, oil, manganese, palm oil) • the need for new markets to sell goods
Why take over other regions? • Needed natural resources • Rubber, petroleum, manganese, palm oil • Hoped for new markets • Halt expansion of some countries • Prestige in the world • Help their “little brothers” • “Like children, they needed help & guidance” • Spread the blessings of the Western civilization • Medicine, law, & the Christian religion
Political & Military Interests • merchant and naval ships needed bases to re-supply • lands was taken to build these bases around the world • Nationalism – rival nations like GB and Germany seized land to stop France’s expansion • colonies were needed for national security • ruling an empire increase global prestige (Hey, look how great we are!”)
Humanitarian Goals • concern for “little brothers” • “Like children, they needed our help and guidance.” • duty to spread the “blessings” of western civilization • Missionaries spread the Christian faith to the heathens • Doctors: my medicine is better than yours colonial officials
Social Darwinism • idea taken from Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species (1859) • social theory of the time based on evolution & natural selection • “survival of the fittest” • applied to social change • superiority = wealth & success • led to feelings of racial superiority among westerners • non-Europeans lower on scale cultural & physical development • did not have European technology • imperial conquest & destruction of weaker races natural • “Nature’s way of improving the human race”
Weaknesses of Land-Based Empires • decline of older civilizations • Ottoman Empire, Mughal India, Qing China • internal wars & slave trade undermined established nations • newer states couldn’t resist western imperialism
Western Advantages • stronger economies • well-organized government • powerful armies & navies • superior weapons vs. outdated weapons • Maxim gun (1889) • 1st automatic machine gun • railroads & steamships • interior travel upstream • communications • cure for malaria-disease caused by mosquitoes • invention of quinine as an anti-malarial
Turn of Century China • self-sufficient economy • food, mines, silks, cottons, fine porcelain • don’t need, or care, to trade with others • healthy agricultural economy • better nutrition HUGE population boom
Trade Between Britain and China • Balance of Trade • China (+) | Britain (-) • Chinese wanted nothing • British wanted tea • Introduction of Opium
The Trade Issue • Canton System: placed strict limits on foreign traders • European merchants could only trade in southern China (Hong Kong, Macao, Canton) • China sold Europeans silk, porcelain, & tea • China received gold & silver • China enjoyed a trade surplus • exporting more than it imported • Europeans experienced a trade deficit • purchasing more from China than they sold to China (not good)
Tea-Opium Connection • How to fix Europe’s trade deficit with China? • trade opium from India for Chinese tea • medicine used by Chinese physicians • abuse of narcotic plant = nation of junkies • (1835) 12 million Chinese addicted • silver flows out of China to pay for drug • economy of China declines • decline in China’s standard of living • deterioration of public services • massive peasant uprisings • opium is outlawed by govt. & drug dealers are executed
Chinese Opium Smokers by Thomas Allom
British motivations? “I have heard that smoking opium is strictly forbidden in your country. Why do you let this evil drug be sent to harm people in other countries?” • Chinese official’s complaint to Queen Victoria Great Britain refused to stop selling the drug, insisting on their right to free trade.
British motivations? • Opium War: 1839-1842 • Treaty of Nanjing • “Unequal Treaty” • Pay indemnity • Right of extraterritoriality Great Britain refused to stop selling the drug, insisting on their right to free trade.
Random Trivia Question… What famous British literary character, well-known for his mysterious sleuthing characteristics, also suffered from an opium addiction?
Sherlock Holmes character created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
Opium War (1839) • began as a clash between British merchants & Chinese warships (Qing dynasty) • mainly sea battles • Chinese outgunned by technologically advanced British navy (bigger, better guns) • Chinese had outdated weapons & fighting methods • results in an easy Chinese defeat • China forced to sign the treaty
Treaty of Nanjing (1842) • Britain receives an indemnity • payment for losses in the war ($21 million) • $6 million silver for confiscated opium • $3 million for debts owed the British • $12 million for costs of war • gave Britain Hong Kong in perpetuity • 5 Chinese ports opened to foreign trade • Canton, Amoy, Foochow, Ningpo, & Shanghai • extraterritoriality • exemption from foreign laws (Britain could trade with anyone they wished) • the right to live under British laws and be tried in their British courts • first in a series of unequal treaties • more concessions made to Western powers • China opened up to more trade & missionaries
Hong Kong • 1842: ceded to Britain in Treaty of Nanjing ending the 1st Opium War • under Convention of Peking (after 2nd Opium War), Hong Kong (& other areas) leased to Britain for 99 years, beginning July 1, 1898 • 1984: Sino-British Joint Declaration promising Hong Kong would maintain its capitalistic system & lifestyle under the “One country, Two Systems” policy of Deng XiaoPing • July 1, 1997: Hong Kong returned
HSBC • Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation • Established in 1865 to finance the growing trade between China and Europe • The HSBC Group now comprises a large range of banks and financial service providers around the world.
Internal Problems • 1800s: Qing dynasty in decline • irrigation systems & canals • poor maintenance • massive flooding of Huang He (destroyed farmland) • population explosion • not enough food to feed people • extravagant (expensive) court • heavy taxation on people who had no money • tax evasion by rich • government corruption • civil service system → a system of bribes?
Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864) • internal problems caused peasants to rebel • considered the most devastating peasant revolt in history • Hong Xiuquan(howng shyoo CHWAHN) • leader of the rebellion (claimed to be brother of Jesus Christ) • wanted to create a “heavenly kingdom of great peace” – the Taiping (tie PIHNG) • endorsed social ideas Chinese leaders saw as radical • land reform, equality of men & women, community ownership of property • called for an end to the Qing dynasty (hated by Chinese peasants)
Hong Xiuquan (1814 – 1864)
Taiping Rebellion, cont… • rebels won large sections of China (held on to for 14 years) but… • rebellion is crushed by aid from regional governors & generals ($ & better guns) • EFFECTS: • estimated Chinese dead: 20-30 million • Qing government survives, but shares power with regional commanders • Europeans still after China & trading rights • Russia seized lands in northern China (sneaky little Russians ☺)
What were the estimated figures for the Holocaust again? (Keep in mind, however, that the Taiping Rebellion was a civil matter.)
Self-Strengthening Movement (c. 1861 – 1895) • imported western technology • most important goal: development of military industries • built arsenal factories to produce weapons • shipyards/naval yards, railroads, mining, small-scale industry • western works translated into Chinese • science, government, & the economy • government did not support movement so little progress was made
Foreign Influence in China • Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) revealed Chinese weaknesses • western economic pressure forced China to open to foreign trade & spheres of influence • British took the Yangzi River area • French took the colony of Indochina • Germany & Russia gained areas in northern China • U.S. stayed out fearing European powers might shut out American merchants if they claimed territory • Open Door Policy (1898) • China’s doors opened to all merchants on an equal basis • protected American trading rights • China protected from imperialism
Chinese mandarin Czar Nicholas II Marianne of France Kaiser William II Queen Victoria Japanese samurai They are stabbing into a plate with the word Chine (“China” in French) written on it. WHY?
What’s happening here? Who do the animals represent?
Boxer Rebellion (1900) FYI: The term “boxer” was given to the Chinese by Westerners who had watched the men train in martial arts. • campaign against foreign privileges in China (remember extraterritoriality?) • Righteous Harmonious Fists Boxers • secret society formed in 1899 • GOAL: “Death to the Foreign Devils” (slogan) • drive foreigners out of China • westerners were polluting their land with un-Chinese ways (customs), strange buildings & telegraph lines • 1900: attacked foreigners across China