code switching in a network
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Code-switching in a network

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 36

Code-switching in a network - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 99 Views
  • Uploaded on

Code-switching in a network. Richard Hudson Bangor February 2008. Linguists and psycholinguists. Different worlds, no shared models. We need a bridge. linguists. psycho-linguists. Lingualism. Monolingualism even monolinguals know about other languages Bilingualism Multilingualism

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Code-switching in a network' - kairos


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
code switching in a network

Code-switching in a network

Richard Hudson

Bangor February 2008

linguists and psycholinguists
Linguists and psycholinguists

Different worlds, no shared models

We need a bridge.

linguists

psycho-linguists

lingualism
Lingualism
  • Monolingualism
    • even monolinguals know about other languages
  • Bilingualism
  • Multilingualism
    • World record for societal multilingualism =
  • Hyperpolyglottism
    • World record for individual multilingualism =

?

6

72?

?

theory
Theory
  • How do monolinguals record knowledge about languages?
    • e.g. ‘Latin is dead’
  • How do linguals keep their languages separate?
    • e.g. ‘Dog is English, ci is Welsh’
  • How do these facts relate to language-structure?
languages in the mind
Languages in the mind
  • Each named language is a concept.
  • It’s part of general knowledge.
  • General knowledge is a network of concepts.
  • So each named language is a node.
  • And its properties are links to other nodes.
latin is dead
‘Latin is dead’

default

spoken by

language

community

‘isa’

0

Latin

exception

word grammar
Word Grammar
  • Language competence is a network too.
    • not a network of lexical items or constructions
    • nodes have no internal structure.
  • It’s just our (ordinary) knowledge of words.
  • So (1) it has no boundary.
  • So (2) activation spreads freely between language and non-language.
spreading activation
Spreading activation
  • Language must be a network because it carries spreading activation.
  • Evidence:
    • Priming: word 1 primes word 2 if they are network neighbours.
    • Speech errors: the substituted word is activated by accident from the target or context.
on the screen no priming
On the screen: no priming

lorry

fon

nurse

Delay:

0.9

0.8

0.8

Non-word

Word

nurse primes doctor
Nurse primes doctor.

doctor

fon

nurse

Delay:

0.9

0.8

0.6

Non-word

Word

priming at all levels
Priming at all levels

Words prime network neighbours in:

  • Phonology: verse primes nurse (but only briefly)
  • Morphology: hedges primes hedge for longer than pledge does.
  • Syntax: Vlad brought a book to Boris primes other V + DO + PP sentences
  • Semantics: nurse primes doctor.
how activation spreads
How activation spreads
  • Blindly – hence errors.
  • In any direction, depending on the target.
    • Speaking or listening or analysing or …
  • Randomly, so weak activation has a weak effect (rather than no effect)
    • because activation converges from many directions.
no boundaries
No boundaries
  • Activation flows freely between language and non-language
  • Even speech errors may have non-linguistic causes
    • E.g. (By a computer) Do you have a
  • Choice of language is another example.

computer?

screwdriver?

languages in a network
Languages in a network
  • Each word has (‘belongs to’) a language.
  • Each language has a prototypical ‘word’.
  • Prototypical words are the domain of phonology.
welsh and english
Welsh and English

language

Welsh

English

language

language

English-word

Welsh-word

ci

thanks

diolch

dog

a language isn t a box
A language isn’t a box.

Welsh

English

ci

diolch

dog

thanks

pro network con boxes
Pro network, con boxes
  • Translation equivalents in different languages prime one another.
    • e.g. ci primes dog.
  • So they must share meaning.
  • Likewise for phonological or graphological priming.
    • e.g. ci primes key or cipher.
cross language links in a network
Cross-language links in a network

Welsh-word

noun

English-word

ci

dog

key

sound

meaning

sound

meaning

/ki:/

moreover l1 and l2 are unequal
Moreover, L1 and L2 are unequal
  • Often, L2 was learned via L1
    • e.g. ‘Ci means dog’
  • So some L2 words are linked directly to L1 words by a ‘translation’ relation, but not vice versa.
  • This explains why L2 > L1 translation is faster and easier than L1 > L2 (Kroll & Dussias 2004).
  • But in time L2 becomes independent of L1.
the asymmetry of l1 and l2
The asymmetry of L1 and L2

L2-word

L1-word

translation

ci

dog

meaning

language choice
Language choice
  • Activation from meaning activates words in bothlanguages.
  • So how does a bilingual stick to one language when ‘in monolingual mode’?
  • Two suggestions so far (Costa 2004): Non-target language activation is:
    • inhibited.
    • ignored.
  • Both assume an external controller.
code switching with external control
Code-switching with external control

Welsh-word

English-word

suppress

or ignore

ci

dog

sound

sound

meaning

meaning

/ki:/

/dg/

winner?

external control
External control?
  • Who is the external controller?
    • a ‘homunculus’?
    • problem: infinite regress.
  • What does ‘he’ control?
    • just language use?
  • If possible, avoid special external controls.
code switching with internal control
Code-switching with internal control

Welsh-word

English-word

ci

dog

sound

sound

meaning

meaning

/ki:/

/dg/

winner?

two kinds of code switching
Two kinds of code-switching
  • Situational or intra-sentential.
  • Bilingual speakers can stick to one language when the situation requires it
    • e.g. when speaking to a monolingual
  • How do they do it?
  • The situation keeps the ‘required language’ node active.
speaking to a welsh speaker
Speaking to a Welsh speaker

language

spoken by

Welsh

English

Welsh speakers

language-of

language-of

English-word

Welsh-word

addressee

ci

dog

current interaction

intra sentential code mixing
Intra-sentential code-mixing
  • Used only when speaking to bilinguals.
  • Bilinguals belong to both communities.
  • So the situation activates both languages.
  • e.g. (Eppler 2004)
    • und heuer fahren wir nach Harrogatefor a long-es weekend
    • die do-'nt mind aber I do .
speaking to a welsh english bilingual
Speaking to a Welsh-English bilingual

spoken by

spoken by

English speakers

English

Welsh speakers

Welsh

language-of

language-of

English-word

Welsh-word

addressee

dog

ci

current interaction

random choice
Random choice
  • Suppose each language is equally active.
  • So for each word each language is equally likely:
    • like tossing a coin, where each toss is independent of the previous one:
    • A A B A B B A A A B B A B B
  • But that’s not how code-mixing works.
inertia prevails
Inertia prevails
  • Words tend strongly to be in the same language if they are:
    • adjacent or
    • linked by a syntactic dependency.
  • Why does adjacency matter?
    • the previous language is still most active
  • Why does dependency matter?
    • the dependency link carries activation.
why does the language tend to stay the same
Why does the language tend to stay the same?

a concept

Lang B

Lang A

language

meaning

word 1

word 2

word 3

?

?

dependent

or head

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Language choice is governed by activation of:
    • a ‘required language’ node to match the addressee’s social category
    • the previous word
    • a syntactically related word
  • Language is integrated into the network of general knowledge.
the bridge is growing
The bridge is growing

Computer model with numbers

linguistics

psycho-linguistics

diolch yn fawr
Diolch yn fawr
  • For this slide show:

www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/dick/talks.htm#bangor

  • For more about hyperpolyglots etc:

…dick/polyglotism/home.htm

  • For more about Word Grammar:

…dick/wg.htm

ad