FLED 415- Language Transfer CodeSwitching / CodeMixing Çağla Nikbay B. Betül Tüzüner Esra Şen Aslıhan Emirmustafaoğlu SümeyraYörür Şeyda Baharoğlu
Muthusamy P., 2009 CommunicativeFunctionsandReasonsforCode-switching: A MalaysianPerspective • Eldrigde J., 1996 Code-Switchingin a TurkishSecondarySchool
RelatedTopics: • Whatdoescode-switchingmean? • Thedifferencebetweencode-switcingandcode-mixing? • Thecommunicativefunctionsandreasons of code-switching • Thestudiesbased on code-switching • Is code-switchingaccepted as a purposefulorrandomphenomenon? • Is it possibletoutilizecode-switchingforpedagogicalaim?
CommunicativeFunctionsandReasonsforCode-switching:A MalaysianPerspective Muthusamy P., 2009
Code- switching is the concurrent use of more than one-language. • Multilinguals, who speak more than one language, sometimes use elements of multiple languages in conversing with each other.
Code-switching/Code-mixing Code- switching and code-mixing are used interchangably; however, there is a difference: • Code-mixing refers to the change from one language to another within the same utterance in terms of lexical, grammatical and morphological aspect. e.g. Bugün add-drop dönemi başlıyor. Yarın online kayıt sistemi açılıyor. Senin sunum yapacağin part burası mı?
Code-swithingreferstothechangefromonelanguagetoanother not in thesameutterance; but in thestretch of conversation. e.g. Researher Ana CeliaZentellagives an exampledialogueamongPuerto Rican Spanish-EnglishBilinguals: Lolita: Oh, I couldstaywith Ana? Marta: — but youcould ask papiandmamitoseeifyoucouldcomedown. Lolita: OK. Marta: Ana, if I leave her herewouldyousend her upstairswhenyouleave? ACZ: I’lltellyouexactlywhen I havetoleave, at ten o’clock. Y son lasnueve y cuarto. ("Andit’s nine fifteen.") Marta:Lolita, tevoy a dejarcon Ana. ("I’mgoingtoleaveyouwith Ana.") Thankyou, Ana.
CommnicativeFunctions of Code-Switching • Lack of Facility • Lack of Register • Mood of the Speaker • To emphasize a point • Habitual Experience • Semantic significance • To show identity with a group • To address a different audience • Pragmatic reasons • To attract attention (Malik, 1994)
1. Lack of Facility: Bilinguals often code switch: • when they cannot find an appropriate expression or • when the language of conversation does not have the particular word needed to carry on the conversation smoothly.
e.g. There is a lexical item “social drinker” in English that is unacceptable in a Malay situation and their language does not have a translation equivalence for this word. Hence, the phrase social drinker is directly borrowed and used as an instance of phrase level mixing as in the following example: !!!Saya difahamkan bahawa OKS jarang minum, hanya seorangsocialdrinker. [I understand that OKS seldom drinks, he is only a social drinker]
2. Lack of Register Bilinguals often code-switch: • When they are not equally competent in two languages and • when they do not know the terms in two languages. e.g. Especially from L2 to L3: Instead of “Zwölf” in German--- using twelve War-was habe- have
3. Mood of theSpeaker • When the speaker is in the right state of mind, he/she can find the appropriate word or expression in the base language; but, they may code-switch to the language which is available the speakers. • they are tired or angry, • they have a disturbed mind. e.g. L1:Turkish/L2: English speakers tend to switching to Turkish in such a condition: Yani, evet, of, işte, şey…
Study: Code-switching in classroom As a teacher, in whatsituationsandforwhatreasons can wecode-switch in theclassroom??? Accordingtothestudyconducted in JaffnaSchool, followingfourfunctions of classroommanagementarecited in a Tamil-languagebasedstudentsallowingfortheswitchingtoEnglish at somepoints.
1. Openingtheclass • Tamil is usedtopreparetheclassforthelessonbygivingthenecessarydirections in regardtoarrangement of theroom, whileEnglish is usedforthelessonproper. e.g. T: piLLayaL, katirakaLaiVaTTamaaipooTunkoo, sattampooTaamal, ketiyaapooTunkoo. Turn to page forty for today’s lesson. [Children, arrange your chairs into a circle without making noise. Arrange quickly….]
2. RequestingHelp • Anykind of helpstudentsneedtoperform an activityareposed in Tamil, whereasthetasksthemselvesareinformed in English. e.g. • S: (reads)The red car belongs to // (to T)iteNNa, Miss, eppiTicolluratu, (spells) e-n-o-s-h-a? [What is this, Miss, how do I say this?] Whataboutthe role of thisfunction in theclassrooms in Turkey?
3. Managingdiscipline • StudentsswitchtoTamilwhenteywanttocomplaintotheteacheraboutany problem withtheirclassmates. e.g. S: Teacher, look at Selma. Beni rahatsız ediyor. ( thesecondsentence is more-complextoutter. Therefore, thestudentswitchthewholesentenceintoTurkish.)
4. Teachers’ encouragements & compliments • TheteacherswitchestoTamiltoencourage a responsefromstudents. Theswitchperforms an affectivefunction. e.g. • T: What is the past tense of “swim”? // come on. //ennapiLLayal, ituteriyaataa? Poona vakuppilaiconnaniinkal. • [……….What, children, you don’t know this? You told me that in the last class]
Furthermore, thefunctions of codeswitchingforcontenttransmissionarefour: 5. Reviewing a lesson 6. Defining a word 7. Explaining a concept 8. Negotiatingculturalrelevance
Result: • It is importanttonotethatstudentsweresilentwhentheteacherasked a question in English. On theotherhand, therewere a lot of responseswhen it wasposed in Tamil. Therefore, theteacherusesthisopportunitytointroducetheEnglishvocabularyrelatedtothelesson.
Conclusion: • Thestudy has shownthathabitualexpressionwhich is relatedtopsychologicalaspect of thebehavior as themainreasonforcodeswitching. Furthermore, lack of registercompetence is anothercontributingfactor. • On theotherhandsociopoliticalsituations in Malaysiaexertspressure on theTamilspeakingcommunity in itsefforttomaintainitsownethnicandlinguisticidentity.
Accordingtotheourownstudy: • Participants?? • Questionnaire?? • Video-record?? • Result??
CODESWITCHING IN A TURKISH SECONDARY SCHOOL ELRIDGE J., 1996
INTRODUCTION • John Elridge’s article is about the code-switching of young learners in a Turkish secondary school. • No evidence to support the notion that limiting the use of mother tongue improves learning efficiency. • In contrary, the article shows that code switching in the classroom has a pedagogical orientation and is highly purposeful. • The author gives this definition: Code-switching may be briefly defined as the alternation between two (or more) languages, which is not a random phenomenon but a purposeful activity.
LANGUAGE ATTITUDES • In general there is a concern among teachers that if students apply to code-switching, there is a problem in learning thesecondlanguage. • 'If the students start speaking in their own languagewithout yourpermission . . . it generally means that something is wrongwith the lesson.‘Willis (1981). • ‘Progress in the second language is facilitated if only one code is used in • the classroom.’ Cummins & Swain (1986). • HOWEVER, this is not the case!! There are pedagogical implications for code-switching, which is not a counter-productive phenomenon.
THE STUDY Where Deniz High School To whom elementary & lower intermediate level learners aged 11-13 The aims of this study is to find answers to the following questions: 1. What is the relationship between the level of the student and his or her use of code-switching strategies? 2. What are the general purposes and specific functions of code-switching? 3. How do the code-switchers themselves view the phenomenon? 4. Are there certain types of speech event in which code-switching does not take place, and if so, with what consequences?
ASPECTS OFCODE-SWITCHING • Code-switching and level: • Analysis of the study shows that it seems to be no relationship between level of achievement in the target language and the use of code-switching strategies. • Namely, high achieving students code-switched just as regularly as other students. • The greater the competence in thelanguage X the less the learner will switch to the native code. • General purposes of code-switching: • 77 % of all instances of code-switching classroom tasks & learningobjectives • The rest comments directed by students to teacher (not taskorientation) • The avoidance strategy was extremely rare. That is to say , students didn’t switch to their mother tongue to talk about something else entirely.
Specific functions of code-switching: The main problem in analysing code-switching in functional terms is that many switches may be either multi-functional, or open to different functional interpretations. BUT, we may say that students code-switchin the classroom from one or more of the following motivations: a. Equivalence: e.g: Teacher, cave it means in Turkish mağara? the required item in the target code was simply unknown. (cave) b. Floor-holding: e.g: Where did Robert? ... ondansonra? . . . neydi? T: Was this done on your own? L: Tekbaşıma ... on my own. It is not the discussion of “knowing “ a language, it is actually accessing “learned” information. Code-switching a stopgap (temporary measure).
c.Metalanguage • Although tasks are performed in the target language, the comments, evaluation and talk about the tasks are performed in the native language. e.g. T: What did you at the weekend? S: Ne yaptım… I went to the zoowithmyfriends.
d.Reiteration • Themessage is clarifiedandreinforcedrepeating it in thenativelanguage as themessage is not understood. e.g. S1: Flowers… he?...flowers… T: Flowers. S2: Flowers… Çiçek.
e. GroupMembership • Code-switching is a part of groupidentiy. e.g. Mybestfrend-im I likebeingcorrected, yanibecause I learnyani.
f. ConflictControl • Ifthere is a potential of conflictwithadresee, thenusethesecondlanguage!!! e.g. liarinstead of “yalancı” no instead of “hayır”
g. Alignment and disalignment • Thespeakershouldeitheralignhim/herselftotheconversationtakingplaceorseekwaystodisalign it. e.g. S1: What did you do yesterday? S2: Nedensiz ... Why are you ... S3: Bequite. S4: Please be quiet, friends.
CodeSwitching in Oral Examinations • Thefactthatthecode-swithcing at thislevel is NOT a result of avoidance but a strategy of communication is alsoprovedby oral examinations. • No evidenceforgoodlearnerscodeswithless, badlearnerscodeswitchmore.
An example: • T: Now I just want you to tell me what you're going to do in your summer holiday. • S: (3.0) er (5.0) In the summer I went to Karaburun (1.0) er (2.0) in Karaburun I er (4.0) swim in the sea (1.0) erm (4.0) erm (5.0) er I eat fish er (2.0) and er potato er chips. • T: And have you got a summer house in Karaburun? • S: No (4.0) er one day er • T: Hmm? • S: (4.0) er (2.0) and I er we went to Kusada§i, Ku§ada§i in Ku§ada§i • (3.0) er (1.0) in Ku§ada§i we (3.0) summer house (7.0).