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Code Switching—Code Mixing. Lecture 5 Iwan Fauzi , S.Pd ., M.A. Contact Phenomenon. Code Switching (CS). Code Mixing (CM). Borrowing. Defined term: Switching. Haugen (1956) refers to the alternate use of two languages in speech as ‘switching’.

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code switching code mixing

Code Switching—Code Mixing

Lecture 5

IwanFauzi, S.Pd., M.A.

contact phenomenon
Contact Phenomenon

Code Switching


Code Mixing



defined term switching
Defined term: Switching
  • Haugen (1956) refers to the alternate use of two languages in speech as ‘switching’.
  • Hock and Joseph (1996) CS takes place at syntactic boundaries.

Poplack and Meechan (1995) define CS as the ‘juxtaposition of sentences or sentence fragments each of which is internally consistent with the morphological and syntactic rules of its lexifier language’.

  • Grosjean (1982) observes that CS is an extremely common characteristic of bilingual speech and defines it as ‘the alternate use of two or more languages in the same utterance or conversation’.
defined term mixing
Defined term: Mixing
  • Mixing has been dismissed as abnormal behavior.
  • Kachru (1978) defines CM as a strategy used for the ‘transferring’ of linguistic units from one language to another.
  • Hock and Joseph (1996) propose that CM occurs when content words are placed or inserted into the grammatical structure of another language.

Hamers (1989) refers to CM represents ‘lack of competence’ whereas CS does not.

  • Consensus among researchers that CM is a kind of ‘transfer’ of linguistic items, in most instances ‘content words’ or ‘constituent insertions’ from one language to another suggesting an asymmetrical involvement of languages in the bilingual lexicon.
  • CM belongs to the structure of one language.
cs vs cm how differ
“CS vs. CM: how differ?”

Muysken (2000: 4) used the term ‘switching’ for language interaction between clauses, and ‘mixing’ for intra-clausal phenomena. Or, switching is alternation and mixing is insertion

reason why cs and cm
Reason why CS and CM?
  • To signal social relationship
  • To signal language preference
  • To obviate difficulties
  • To frame discourse
  • To dramatize keywords
  • To lower language barriers
to signal social relationship
“To signal social relationship”
  • CS or CM can also be seen as a tool to indicate the social relationships between the participants.

You allmemang. Tak, I kata, yang lain tu.Sebabkalauyour branchcukup, I rasa dia orang takkangunayou, ok. Sebabkalauyoubetul-betulnakmengajaryoukena tau sebabyoumemangtakpernahbuat letters langsung.

  • on Malay bilinguals’ communication which reported that the use of English pronouns can avoid rank signaling (Noor Azlina, 1975) and equalize power relations between speakers (Nair-Venugopal, 2000).
to signal language preference
“To signal language preference”
  • Speakers tend to code-switch or code-mix to fill in the lexical gaps in the language of interaction.

Objektifpenilaiantanahniialahkitanaktentukannilai, market valuedanjugabenefit value. Secaradasarnya, valueniditentukanolehlokasitanah yang nakdinilaitu.Macammana pun, valuedanpotentialsesuatupropertytuditentukanolehlokasi. So what we need to understand.

  • This shows that perhaps due to habitual use of the terms, training received in English, the comprehen-sibility of the terms in English compared to local language.
to obviate difficulties
“To obviate difficulties”
  • Speakers seemed to CS or CM to obviate difficulties in finding the correct referential terms in local language.

There are five branches here, why don’t we take turn.. er.. go .. ermenggubah, er .. menggubal. Alright, designing the questions for progress test.

  • The speaker felt that she faced difficulties in finding the right referential term in Malay for the word designing. The fillers ‘er’ show that she was looking for the right word between ‘menggubah’ (composing) and ‘menggubal’ (designing). In Malay, these words both have the same meaning as ‘writing’.
to frame discourse
“To frame discourse”
  • Another function of CS or CM is to attract and hold listeners’ attention. This is done by framing the discourse with the use of conjunctions like ‘so’ and ‘then’, and routines like ‘well’, ‘ok’ and ‘alright’.

Sodalamperubahan, kitabuat yang inilah, yang terbaru. Wellkitatakterikatdengan data LPH dahulu.

  • According to Koike (1987), this type of CS or CM normally occurs at boundaries as an intensifying strategy to emphasize the utterance, and to hold the listeners’ attention.
to dramatize keywords
“To dramatize keywords”
  • Speakers also CS or CM for a dramatic effect in order to attract listeners’ attention that can emphasize the speakers’ point, or expressed in the forms of inventive expression.


  • The word ‘boring’ can be used to express either boredom or dislike. The speaker’s use of this English word was to highlight his dislike over the matter.
to lower language barriers
“To lower language barriers”
  • CS or CM is employed as a strategy to lower the language barriers between the speaker and the audience due to the discrepancy in their language competence.

For perubahan, there are certain syaratfor perubahan.

  • CM or CS was, thus, seen as device to ensure understanding where speaker switched only at the topic-related words.
results from cs cm
Results from CS & CM?

Discourse strategy

Neutralization strategy

Process of nativization

Process of hybridization