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Nationalism and Sectionalism. Unit Three: Chapter 7. Let’s Review! . Past and future Presidents Significant Events. What sort of issues did we have before the war: after the war:. Establishing a gov’t Staying neutral B/t GB & FR Debt Growth…more land Taxes/Revenue War.

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nationalism and sectionalism

Nationalism and Sectionalism

Unit Three:

Chapter 7

let s review
Let’s Review!
  • Past and future Presidents
    • Significant Events
what sort of issues did we have before the war after the war
What sort of issues did we have before the war:after the war:
  • Establishing a gov’t
  • Staying neutral
    • B/t GB & FR
  • Debt
  • Growth…more land
  • Taxes/Revenue
  • War
  • Finding our place among other nations
  • Industrial growth
  • Transportation
  • Opening the west
  • Population growth
  • Growing pains…
good feelings how
Good feelings – how?
  • Internal improvements
    • Building roads, canals, transportation
  • Protective Tariff (tax on imports)
    • Tariff of 1816:
      • Raise revenue for internal improvements and protect American businesses from cheap British goods by placing high import taxes on them
good feelings continued
Good feelings, continued.
  • Established 2nd National Bank in 1816
  • Elections:
    • Federalist Party (gone after 1812)
    • Dominant party – Republican
      • 1808 & 1812: James Madison
      • 1816 & 1820: James Monroe
a growing and young nation
A growing and young nation
  • 1780 – 2.7 million people in US, 13 states
  • 1830 – 12 million people in US, 24 states
  • Causes:
    • Not immigration, for now
    • More children born to each family
      • 1800-1840, usually 5 kids per family
    • High infant mortality rate
    • Low median age
      • Most of population was young (in 1820, most under 17 – today’s is 33).
    • Young couples dreamed of working hard to make a good future for their families.
      • The place to make their dream come true was the Trans-Appalachia (west of App Mtns).
a transportation revolution1
A Transportation Revolution
  • Steam Power
    • James Watt – used steam engine to make textiles
    • Robert Fulton – used steam power for a ship
  • The Clermont
    • Fulton’s ship that traveled upriver, against the current
  • By 1820’s, 69 steamboats were on the rivers of America’s West.
a transportation revolution roads
A Transportation Revolution: Roads
  • Roads
    • Used to move goods, migrate west, communicate, & run their gov’t.
    • Federal/National Rd.
      • Built to last, financed by Fed Gov’t.
      • Maryland to Ohio, today called US Route 40.
    • Turnpike – Highways where a toll must be paid
    • Corduroy Rd – Whole logs used to surface the road
    • Plank Rd – planks used on roads
a transportation revolution canals
A Transportation Revolution:Canals
  • Canals
    • Waterways – cheapest way to carry goods, but they don’t go everywhere.
      • So, Americans built artificial waterways (canals).
      • Mostly in North East
    • Erie Canal (1825) – connected Hudson River and Lake Erie.
      • Connected Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes; cut transportation costs by 95%.
        • Increased rate of settlement & development of all Great Lakes Region
        • Led to the rise of NY City
a transportation revolution railroads
A Transportation Revolution: Railroads
  • While better roads aided transportation, RR proved far more durable and efficient for moving goods and people.
    • Used Watt’s steam technology to develop a steam locomotive.
  • In 1828, construction began on the first American RR in Baltimore, MD.
    • Baltimore and Ohio (B & O) line.
  • By 1840, the nation had over 3,300 miles of track on several different lines…more than any other country in the world!
we are a new mobile society
We are a new “MOBILE” society!
  • Increased availability of goods & flow of info
  • Women no longer needed help of whole family to produce household necessities – good & bad
    • Women were alone in housework
  • White Americans could pack up and move!
    • Head west
effects of our new mobile society
Effects of our new mobile society
  • Slaves moved west with owners.
  • Major cause of death among Native Americans – still disease from white settlers
  • Life in the West!
life in the west crossing the appalachians
Life in the West: Crossing the Appalachians
  • In 1828, James Hall wrote Letters from the West.
    • This captured the mood of the nation on the move.
    • He said, “the innumerable caravans of adventurers who are daily crowding to the West in search of homes…produce a constant succession of visitors of every class and of almost every nation.”
pioneers move west1
Pioneers move west!
  • By 1830’s, hundreds of thousands of people living north of Ohio River Valley.
    • New states: Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois
  • Journey was long and difficult.
    • Settlers moved as families
    • Young men traveled alone
  • “Old America seems to be breaking up and moving westward. We are seldom out of sight, as we travel on this grand track towards the Ohio, of family groups behind and before us, some [intending to go] to a particular spot, close to a brother perhaps, or [to] a friend who has gone before and reported well of the country.”
pioneers arrive on their new land
Pioneers arrive on their new land!
  • Once they settled, they faced a heavy burden of work.
  • Must clear the land, plant a crop, build a house.
    • With hand tools and good ole’ muscle
  • Used fire to clear some undergrowth
  • Planted corn
the legend daniel boone
The Legend – Daniel Boone
  • In 1775, he was employed by Transylvania Co.
  • Supposed to cut the Wilderness Rd
    • Became main road to Trans-Appalachia
  • Member of KY state legislature
  • Famous form being a bold and tough pioneer
african american pioneers
African American Pioneers
  • An estimated 98,000 slaves moved west with their owners from 1790-1810.
  • Another 338,000 came from Africa.
  • North of the Ohio River, slavery was forbidden (free slaves could live there).
    • Not supported as white Americans didn’t want to compete with African Americans for jobs/land.
    • Some laws required African Americans to pay $1,000 to move to Illinois, while white people paid nothing.
native americans forced west
Native Americans forced west
  • Most Indians were forced to move during this time.
    • Lost land to US Gov’t thru unfair treaties.
  • Diseases brought by white settlers were the main reason for population dwindling.
  • While many fought to keep their culture, the Cherokee decided to adapt.
cherokee chose to adapt
Cherokee chose to adapt!
  • Under a leader, John Ross, the Cherokee created a legal system and gov’t that blended Indian and European traditions.
  • No more common-owning property
    • No have private property
  • They practiced slavery and had 1,300 African slaves.
  • They became farmers and used a newspaper.
  • A leader Sequoyah, invented an alphabet they used.
  • In 1827, they declared themselves and independent nation!
  • Worked for a little while, but white settlers were too hungry for land.
the industrial revolution

The Industrial Revolution!!!

First… a look into Lowell…


I hate that stupid bell telling me it’s time to work a 12 hour day!

Rather be watching Sponge Bob…

lowell mills the run down
Lowell Mills: The run down
  • Young single women
  • Long hours: 13/14 hour days
  • 90 degrees
  • $2/week
  • Cotton dust
  • Brown lunch
  • Scalped if your hair got caught
  • Hmmm… think about why unions started.
the industrial revolution cont
The Industrial Revolution (cont.)
  • Americans pursued profit with the same energy that they pursued self-improvement and virtue.
  • How to make a profit?
    • Use new inventions
    • Produce materials faster and cheaper
  • Industrial Revolution
    • Effort to increase production by using machines powered by sources other than animals & humans.
how it all started
How it all started…
  • Began in Britain.
    • With improvement in textiles (cloth).
  • James Watts
    • Invented: Steam Engine
  • GB guarded its secrets
    • If you knew about inventions, you couldn’t emigrate (move out of GB).
  • Samuel Slater ruined it!
    • Brought textile mills to US
industrial innovation in america eli whitney
Industrial Innovation in America – Eli Whitney
  • Eli Whitney
  • In 1796, told Gov’t he would make 10,000 guns in 2 yrs.
    • Then, had to make individual parts & then make them fit together.
    • Whitney thought, what if all the parts were made exactly alike and could be used on any gun…
    • He never did it, but he came up w/ the idea of…
  • Interchangeable Parts
    • Where all parts are made to an exact standard.
eli whitney s cotton gin
Eli Whitney’s – Cotton Gin
  • In 1793, he noticed the time and effort it took to clean cotton seeds from cotton fibers.
    • 1793 – 1 lb. cotton/day
  • Invented: Cotton Gin
    • Machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers.
    • Gin = machine/engine
    • Now, worker could clean 1,000 lbs cotton/day
cotton gin s important effects
Cotton Gin’s Important Effects
  • 1.) Profit/lb of cotton skyrockets & more cotton planted for harvest.
    • Exports rose 6,000% b/t 1790-1815
  • 2.) Many Southern planters began to depend on cotton as their only major crop, b/c it was so profitable.
  • 3.) Planters looked for new land where they could grow more cotton (mostly in AL, MS, LA, & TX).
  • 4.) More African slaves to keep up w/ work on larger plantations.
    • Slave population up to 1.5 million in 1820.
cotton gin in a nutshell
Cotton Gin – in a nutshell
  • The cotton gin helped keep the southern states a land of slavery and of farming, while the northern states became a land of free labor and of industry.
  • These fundamental differences will cause friction…
  • Civil war anyone?
5 th pres james monroe
5th Pres: James Monroe
  • 1817-1825
  • Missouri Compromise is made during his administration.
  • We will look at his administration more in detail next chapter!
important cabinet member john quincy adams
Important cabinet member:John Quincy Adams
  • Secretary of State
    • Hmmm…. Why is this job special?
  • Son of John Adams
  • Going to be next President
  • Guru of foreign affairs:
    • Adams-Onis Treaty
    • Oregon
    • Monroe Doctorine
a little background first expansion into florida
A little background first…Expansion into Florida
  • AL, LA, and Miss were getting crowded.
  • US acquired FL in 1795 through the
  • Pinckney Treaty
    • Named for American diplomatic creator Thomas Pinckney
  • It accomplished:
    • 1.) The Southern boundary of the US was set at 31’N latitude, leaving FL firmly in Spanish hands.
    • 2.) US citizens would be allowed free use of the Miss River thru Spanish territory.
    • 3.) Spain and US agreed to control the Indians living within each country’s territories and to prevent them from attacking the other country’s territory.
expansion into florida cont
Expansion into Florida (cont.)
  • In the 1810’s Spain dealt with rebellions in its South American colonies.
    • Paid little attention to Florida.
    • Allowed Seminoles, Indians in FL, to attack Southern Georgia.
      • Americans didn’t like Seminoles b/c they let escaped slaves live with them.
  • General in charge of protecting US settlers was Andrew Jackson.
    • Told Pres Monroe, “that the possession of the Floridas would be desirable to the United States, and in sixty days it will be accomplished.”
    • Pres Monroe did not openly encourage him, but Jackson still invaded Florida.
      • He succeeded and Americans applauded him (Spain didn’t)
florida is all ours bwah ha ha
Florida is all ours… bwah-ha-ha!
  • Monroe (and his Sec of State, John Quincy Adams) tried to make the best of Jackson’s actions.
    • Adams accused Spain of breaking the Pinckney Treaty by failing to control the Seminoles.
  • Adams-Onis Treaty
    • B/t Adams & Spain’s rep Onis y Gonzales
    • Spain agreed to cede (give up) FL to US
      • Spain also gave up claim to Pacific Northwest
      • Now, for the 1st time, the US stretched from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.
    • Set boundary b/t LA Purchase and Spanish Territory
      • In fact, US ceded large amount of modern day Texas.
problems for monroe
Problems for Monroe:
  • Battle with GB over Great Lakes and boundary of Canada
  • Settlements:
    • GB ended asst with natives
    • Rush-Bagot Treaty
      • US & GB removed all warships from Great Lakes, demilitarized entire 3000 mile border
    • Convention of 1818
      • US ships could fish in Canadian waters
      • Set N boundary of LA purchase (49th parallel) and gave join occupation of Oregon for 10 years
more problems
More problems:
  • Spanish Florida – boundary dispute
    • Seminole & Creek attacks against GA
    • A. Jackson chased Seminole into FL and seized Pensacola
  • Settlement:
    • Adams-Onis Treaty (1819)
      • Spain cedes FL to USA; set boundary of LA territory
  • Russia – claimed Alaska south to Oregon
    • Russians agreed to withdraw from Oregon – had too much land to govern
monroe doctrine go jqa
Monroe Doctrine – Go JQA!
  • Supposed to solve problems with:
    • Latin America
      • Spanish colonies declare indep.
        • USA feels need to protect them
    • Quadruple Alliance
      • Set up in Europe to suppress ideas of FR Rev.
        • Worried actions might spread to US
      • Austria, Britain, Russia, Prussia
    • Pacific Coast of North America
      • Russia in Oregon
usa statement you mess with latin america you mess with us
USA Statement: you mess with Latin America, you mess with us!
  • Monroe Doctrine:
    • 1.) The U.S. would not get involved in any internal affairs of European countries, nor would it take sides in wars among them.
    • 2.) The U.S. recognized the existing colonies and states in the W.H. and would not interfere with them.
    • 3.) The U.S. would not permit any further colonization of the W.H.
    • 4.) Any attempt by any European power to control any nation in the W.H. would be viewed as a hostile action toward the U.S.
Post-War Boom & Panic

Economic prosperity in 1815.

Republican party dominated politics, Federalists faded out of existence.

Creation of Second Bank of the United States.

Panic of 1819:

First Great Depression

Economic downturn

The Missouri Compromise

Admission of the state of Missouri.

Basic issue of slavery at stake.

Missouri Compromise of 1820

Slavery would be permitted in Missouri.

Maine would come into the union as a Free State.

As the U.S. expanded westward, states north of 36° 30‘ latitude would be free states.

Avoid confronting the issue of slavery for the time being!

important info for nationalism chief justice john marshall builds the power of the federal gov t
Important info for nationalism:Chief Justice John Marshall, builds the power of the federal gov’t.
  • McCulloch vs. Maryland
    • Congress had authority to est. a national bank.
  • Dartmouth vs. Woodward
    • Limits states power to interfere with business.
  • Gibbons vs. Ogden
    • Fed gov’t must regulate trade on interstate waterways.
the election of 1824
The Election of 1824:
  • First election where no candidate was a leader during the Revolution.
  • John Quincy Adams defeated John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, Henry Clay of Kentucky, and the popular Andrew Jackson of Tennessee.
  • A Controversial Race:
    • Calhoun withdraws and runs for V.P.
    • Adams faces the “Passionate Orator” & the “Man of the People”.
the corrupt bargain
The Corrupt Bargain
  • Jackson wins most popular votes.
  • Feb. 1825 Congress is required to decide election.
  • Clay swings Kentucky’s votes to Adams, days later Adams names Clay his Secretary of State.
president john quincy adams
President John Quincy Adams
  • First son to follow father’s footsteps
  • President only one term; 1825-1829
  • He wrote in his diary daily between the ages of 29-49.
  • He wrote many times about the weaknesses of others, but here is how he described himself, “I am a man of reserved, cold, austere, and forbidding manners.”
j q adams
J.Q. Adams
  • From the beginning of his administration he was challenged by the “Jacksonians” in Congress.
    • Very few things got accomplished while he was President.
  • Tariff of Abomination:
    • Trying to embarrass Adams, the Jacksonians in Congress proposed a tariff bill that raised rates across the board, on raw materials as well as on imported goods.
  • Adam’s home region of New England welcomed the higher import tariffs, but not raw materials because of their industrialized economy would lose profits.
j q adams1
J.Q. Adams
  • No one expected the tariff to pass, so when it did the South became very angry b/c they wanted less expensive imports.
  • The south called this the TARIFF OF ABOMINATIONS. (one nail in the coffin toward secession)
  • One important event during his administration was in 1827, New Orleans held its first Mardi Gras  !
election of 1828
Election of 1828
  • Adams vs. Jackson
  • Economic issues forcing politicians to choose sides.
  • Adams / Clay = National Republicans / Whigs
  • Jackson = Democrats (Jacksonian Dem.)
  • Twice as many men voted in ’28 than ’24.
  • Jackson trounces Adams 178 ecv’s to 83.
the age of jackson
The Age of Jackson
  • Jackson as President
    • Signaled several changes in politics.
      • First President from west of the Appalachians.
      • Start of a new era in American democracy = popular support.
    • Jacksonian Democracy
      • Support for new, less-wealthy voters.
      • Repeal of state laws requiring voters to own land; all white males could vote.
      • Voters rather than legislatures chose Presidential candidates.
the spoils system
The Spoils System
  • Patronage: practice of giving jobs to friends and supporters.
  • Jackson dismissed more than 200 previous appointees and 2,000 other office holders and replaced them with his Jacksonian Democrats. Replaced less than 20%.
  • This was known as the “Spoils System” under Jackson.
  • “Rotation in Office” would prevent a small group of wealthy people from controlling the gov.
  • “Champion of the Common Man.”
belief in limited gov t
Belief in Limited Gov’t
  • Feared the power of a strong National Govt.
  • Attacked politicians he thought corrupt and laws that would limit the people’s liberties.
    • Used Veto power on more acts of Congress than the six previous Presidents combined.
    • Ex. = Fed money for a state road in KY.
the tariff crisis
The Tariff Crisis!
  • Tariff of 1828
  • Congress passed prior to Jackson taking office.
  • Benefited the industrial north, forced southerners to pay higher prices on manufactured goods.
      • “Tariff of Abominations”
more crisis
More crisis!!!
  • Secede: withdrawal was threatened by South Carolina
    • South Carolina declared the tariffs “null, void, and no law, nor binding upon this State, its officers or citizens.”
  • 1833 Force Bill = required South Carolina to collect the tariffs.
  • Jackson threatened to send 50,000 troops to SC.
  • Henry Clay, the “Great Compromiser”, reduce some of the import duties and SC cancelled the nullification act, thus nullified the Force Bill at the same time.
indian relocation
Indian Relocation
  • Indian Removal Act: 1830 encouraged by Jackson, authorized him to give Native Americans land in parts of the Louisiana Purchase in exchange for lands taken from them in the east.
  • Jackson forcibly relocated about 100,000 members of five tribes.
  • 32 million prairie acres in Oklahoma for 100 million acres in the east. (That seems fair…… NOT!)
  • Cherokee nation took up farming and adapted more to the white culture than any other nation.
  • Sequoyah = writing system, literacy.
  • The Cherokee Govt. was modeled after the U.S.
indian removal continued
Indian Removal Continued
  • 1829 gold discovered on Cherokee lands in Georgia.(Dahlonega)
  • Cherokees sued in court
  • Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that they had no legal standing in American courts because they were not U.S. citizens nor from a foreign country.
    • “We wish to remain on the land of our fathers. We have a perfect and original right to remain without interruption. . . It cannot be that the community we are addressing, remarkable for its intelligence and religious sensibilities, and preeminent [unmatched] for its devotion to the rights of man, will lay aside this appeal.”
          • --- Cherokee public appeal, July 17, 1830
  • 1832Worcester v. Georgia; Chief Justice Marshall ruled that Georgia had no authority over Cherokee territory. Georgia ignored the ruling.
“All preceding experiments for the improvement of the Indians have failed. It seems now to be an established fact that they can not live in contact with a civilized community and prosper. . . .No one can doubt the moral duty of the Government of the United States to protect and if possible to preserve and perpetuate the scattered remnants of this race which are left within our borders.”

--- President Jackson, annual address to

Congress December 7, 1835

  • Trail of Tears:1838, U.S. army rounded up more than 15,000 Cherokees into camps. 116 days they were forced to march westward in groups of about 1,000.
      • Poorly organized and undersupplied in the fall and winter months. 1 out of 4 Cherokees died of cold or disease as troops refused to let them rest. Cost was $6 million, this money was subtracted from the $9 million payment for the lands given up.

Crown, Clothes


King Andrew



jackson s successors
Chose not to run in ’36.

Martin Van Buren becomes next President, supported by Jackson.

Panic of 1837, severe depression in Van Buren’s first year in office. Dragged into the ’40’s.

William Henry Harrison defeats Van Buren in 1840, dies after one month in office from pneumonia. VP John Tyler takes over.

Jacksonian Democrats vs. Whigs.

Jackson’s Successors