Nationalism and Sectionalism • Before you learned: • The invention of the cotton gin and the demand for cotton caused slavery to spread in the South. • Now you will learn: • While patriotic pride increased national unity, tensions grew between the North and South. • The cotton gin, invented in 1793 by Eli Whitney, was designed to separate raw cotton fibers from seeds and other foreign materials prior to baling and marketing. The design was so efficient that it remains virtually unchanged to the present day.
Key Questions • What factors helped promote national unity? • What factors increased sectional tension? • How were borders made more secure?
Henry Clay • Henry Clay, Representative from Kentucky, wanted America to be self-sufficient! • “Every nation should anxiously endeavor to establish its absolute independence, and consequently be able to feed and clothe and defend itself. If it rely upon a foreign supply that may be cut off…it cannot be independent.” -Henry Clay, The Life and Speeches of Henry Clay
Clay’s American System Three point plan: • Protective Tariff: establish a high tariff on imports to protect U.S. businesses from foreign competition • Establish a National Bank with a single currency • Internal Improvements: Improve the country’s transportation systems. Improve roads, build canals, railroads
“Era of Good Feelings” • James Monroe wins in 1816 election • Federalist Party dies out • Nationalism wins out over political differences
McCulloch v. Maryland • Key issue: State Powers vs. Federal Supremacy • McCulloch v. Maryland: • In 1816, Congress created the Second Bank of the U.S. (1st charter expired) • Opponents of the bank want to hurt its operation by having state banks tax the federal bank • James McCulloch, a cashier from Maryland, refused to pay the tax • Supreme Court decided that the government did have the right to set up the bank and that states did not have the authority to tax a federal agency. “The power to tax involves the power to destroy”
Gibbons v. Ogden 1824 • In 1824, two steamship operators from N.Y. and N.J. fought over shipping rights on the Hudson River. • The Court ruled that interstate commerce could only be regulated by the federal government.
Transportation Links Cities • Cumberland Road or National Road • 1806 Congress funded a road from Cumberland, Maryland to Wheeling, West Virginia • By 1841, it extended to Vandalia, Illinois
“Canal Era” or “Age of Canals”1790-1855 • Completed in 1825 • Erie Canal connected New York City and Buffalo, New York • Farm products sent east, manufactured goods sent west • Trade increased, was faster and less expensive • New York City becomes the nations largest city
Sectional Tensions Increase • Sectionalism (def.): Loyalty to the interests of a region or section of the country • South relied on plantation economy • Northeast relied on manufacturing and trade • West wanted cheap land and improvements in transportation to get goods to market
Missouri Compromise • 1817 Missouri applies for statehood • 11 free vs. 11 slave states • Missouri added as a slave state would upset the balance in Congress • Southerners worried free states might want to ban slavery altogether if admitted as a free state • Southerners also claimed the Constitution did not give Congress the power to ban slavery
Maine • Maine applies for statehood during the debate • Henry Clay, “The Great Compromiser,” • Proposes that Maine should enter as a free state,Missouri as a slave state, keeping the balance of power • Congress passed it, also establishing the Missouri Compromise Line • Open to slavery south of the line, closed to slavery above the line
U.S. Borders • Rush-Bagot Treaty 1817 Limited U.S. and British arms on the Great Lakes • Convention of 1818 Set the 49th parallel between U.S. and Canada to the Rocky Mountains • Florida Seminole Wars • Runaway slaves were escaping to Spanish Florida • Seminole Indians were raiding U.S. Settlements in Georgia and protected by the Spanish • Andrew Jackson went into Florida and claimed it for the U.S. • Monroe tells Spain: police Florida or turn it over to the U.S.
Adams-Onis Treaty • Spain paid $5 million by the U.S. • Hands over Florida • Gives up claim to Oregon Country
Monroe Doctrine • Russian colonies in the Northwest U.S. By 1812, as far south as San Francisco • In 1823 Monroe gives his State of the Union Address in which he warns European countries to… “Stay Out!” No new colonies in the Americas or face the consequences! “…as a principle in which the rights and interests of the United States are involved, that the American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers…”