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Nationalism/ Sectionalism. VAGLIO. Diplomatic Nationalism. Manifest Destiny. Americans began to believe that it was their duty and responsibility to spread their superior culture ---- that it was their God given right to spread west and conquer North America. This begins in Florida.

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Manifest destiny
Manifest Destiny

  • Americans began to believe that it was their duty and responsibility to spread their superior culture ---- that it was their God given right to spread west and conquer North America.

  • This begins in Florida


Problems in florida
Problems in Florida

  • Runaway slaves fled there

  • Creek people retreated to Florida – Seminoles (separatists) --- used Florida as an area to stage resistance

  • Spain could not control colony

  • Kinache warned US to stay out of Florida


Era of good feelings
ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS?

  • Nationalism – supreme pride and loyalty to one’s country --- the belief that the interest of a nation should be place ahead of regional or local interests and the foreign policy should be guided by national interests

  • Sectionalism- the placing of the interests of one’s own region ahead of the interests of the nation as a whole

  • Expansionism- the belief that it is our duty to expand and spread the American Culture!!


Us action
US Action

  • Calhoun – secretary of war – sent General A. Jackson into Florida

  • Jackson disobeyed orders --- destroyed several seminole villages – captured the Spanish governor of Florida –


Result adams onis treaty
Result: Adams/Onis Treaty

  • US puts pressure on Spain about controlling land in Florida --- could result in war --- Spain eventually ceded Florida to the US and established a definite western border.


Nationalism guides foreign policy
Nationalism guides Foreign Policy

  • Britain

    • Rush-Bagot Treaty – an agreement between the US/Britian to demilitarize the Great Lakes

    • Convention of 1818 – meeting that set the US northern border at the 49th parallel and also set up Oregon as a jointly owned territory


Bold statement monroe doctrine
Bold Statement: Monroe Doctrine

  • 1823 – Monroe – warned European powers not to interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere – they should not attempt to create new colonies, or try and overthrow the new nations – any action of this nature would be considered dangerous to the safety of the US --- likewise the US would not involve itself in the affairs of Europe.


Reasons
Reasons

  • Spain and Portugal wanted to regain their lost colonies in Latin America

  • Russia had claimed the 51st parallel as Alaska’s southern border – posed a threat to trade bt/ US and China

  • A response to the Quadruple Alliance – GB, Prussia, Russia, Austria – suppress movements against monarchies


Nationalism
NATIONALISM

  • James Fennimore Cooper/ Washington Irving

  • North American Review – intellectual magazine that began publication in 1815

  • Revived Bank of the US – 1816

  • Army was expanded

  • Navy glorified – successes against British/ Barbary Pirates

    • Stephen Decatur- “Our Country! In her intercourse with foreign nations may she always be in the right, but our country right or wrong.


Ii the american system
II. THE AMERICAN SYSTEM

  • Phrased coined by HENRY CLAY

  • Tariff of 1816 (20% - 25%) – dutiable taxes

  • BANKING SYSTEM

  • INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS – would be paid for by the revenues from the protective tariff

    • Transportation – network of roads, canals particularly in burgeoning OHIO valley – create an interdependent economy

    • Madison’s Veto – (bill for internal improvements on roads)


Iii so called era of good feeling
III. SO CALLED ERA OF GOOD FEELING

  • The election of 1816 signified a few realities

    • Virginia was a dominant for early presidents

    • Federalists ran their last political party

    • ONE PARTY SYSTEM

  • James Monroe – least distinguished of the first eight presidents (connected Founding Fathers – nationalist regime)

  • “good feeling” – this term was quite the misnomer

    • Issue of the tariff, the bank, internal improvements, sale of land, ---- worked to create SECTIONALISM


  • PANIC OF 1819 – “Curse of Hard Times” / did much to hurt the so called era of good feelings (deflation, depression, bankruptcies, unemployment, soup kitchens, debtor’s prisons

  • CAUSES

    • Overspeculation in frontier lands (WEST)

      EFFECTS

    • Financial paralysis

    • WILD CAT BANKS closed

    • GAVE RISE TO JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY – mistrust of the wealthy/ government


Iv growing pains of the west
IV. GROWING PAINS OF THE WEST hurt the so called era of good feelings (deflation, depression, bankruptcies, unemployment, soup kitchens, debtor’s prisons

  • “Ohio FEVER” – nine frontier state had joined the union between 1791 – 1819 ( admitted alternately to keep sectional balance)

    • Harrison/ Jackson

    • Old/ tired land

    • Better transportation – Cumberland road/ Steamboat

    • Land Act 1820 - $ 1.25/ acre


Southern economy
Southern Economy hurt the so called era of good feelings (deflation, depression, bankruptcies, unemployment, soup kitchens, debtor’s prisons

  • Economy in the south thrived on the production of several major cash crops – items grown in surplus to be sold for the sole purpose of making a profit

  • Regional Crops

    • Md, Ky, Va – tobacco

    • SC, GA – rice paddies

    • LA, TX - sugarcane


Cotton becomes king
Cotton Becomes King hurt the so called era of good feelings (deflation, depression, bankruptcies, unemployment, soup kitchens, debtor’s prisons

  • Reason is because cotton is adaptable to the climate and can be grown all over the South East – LA, SC, TN, NC, GA, MI, AL

  • Cotton gin

  • Effects on:

    • Production

    • Slave population


Industry lags
INDUSTRY LAGS hurt the so called era of good feelings (deflation, depression, bankruptcies, unemployment, soup kitchens, debtor’s prisons

  • For the most part the south did not industrialize as quick as the north – remained a region of rural villages /plantations – with 3 large cities – Baltimore, New Orleans, Charleston

  • South had some Industry – Coal, iron, salt, copper mines, textile mills,

  • Region still relied on imported finished product


Society in the south
Society in the South hurt the so called era of good feelings (deflation, depression, bankruptcies, unemployment, soup kitchens, debtor’s prisons

  • of the 6,000,000 in population only 347,525 families owned slave – of which 37,000 were considered to be planters

  • Planters – top society of the south (large plantations) and held 20 0r more slaves – represented less than ½ of 1% of the population

    • 8,000/ 37,000 had more than 50 slaves

    • Only 11 had 500 or more

    • Planters dominated the economics, politics, & society of the south


  • YEOMAN – ordinary farmers made up a vast majority of the white population for the south (may have held for or fewer slaves)

  • Worked on the land themselves

  • RURAL POOR – made up mostly of families living on land to barren for cultivation – fished, hunted, raised chickens & hogs – represented less than 10% OF POPULATION


  • AFRICAN AMERICANS– 3.6 million living in the south – 93% were slaves

  • Task system – workers were given a set of tasks and once completed they had the rest of time free

  • Gang system – slaves organized into gangs & worked from sun up to sundown – planting, cultivating, picking, plowing

    • Driver – director of the work gangs (fear of the lash)

  • Frederick Douglas – Abolitionist ( former slave)


  • AFRICAN AMERICANS– 3.6 million living in the south – 93% were slaves

  • Task system – workers were given a set of tasks and once completed they had the rest of time free

  • Gang system – slaves organized into gangs & worked from sun up to sundown – planting, cultivating, picking, plowing

    • Driver – director of the work gangs (fear of the lash)

  • Frederick Douglas – Abolitionist ( former slave)


Free african americans
Free African Americans were slaves

  • By 1850 225,000 free African Americans resided in the south

    • Descendents from indentured servitude

    • Earned freedom from fighting in the revolution

    • Some bought their freedom

    • Slaveowners set them free


Coping with enslavement
Coping with Enslavement were slaves

  • Culture – centered around religion – most were Christian and gathered together to pray for a better life and share their experiences

    • Influences – GULLLAH – goober, voodoo

    • Resistance – Denmark Vesey/ Nat Turner


Growing sectionalism
Growing Sectionalism were slaves

  • Monroe's Era of Good Feeling could not ward off the growing sectionalism concerning a most divisive issue of slavery

  • 1819 Missouri applied for state hood – Union consisted of 11 Free and 11 slave states – upset political balance in the Senate



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