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Balancing Nationalism and Sectionalism. Chapter 7. Regional Economies Create Differences. Section 1. Another Revolution Affects America. Eli Whitney sparks change Interchangeable parts From artisans to factories Allows for mass production Cheapest but most profitable

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another revolution affects america
Another Revolution Affects America
  • Eli Whitney sparks change
    • Interchangeable parts
  • From artisans to factories
  • Allows for mass production
  • Cheapest but most profitable
  • Sparks the Industrial Revolution
industrial revolution
Industrial Revolution
  • Started in Britain
  • Power driven machines
  • US had more people than jobs
  • In America during Embargo 1807 & War of 1812
  • Starts in New England
  • Leads to social & economical reorganization
two agricultural systems develop
Two Agricultural Systems Develop
  • Agriculture grows in north
    • OH, IN, IL, WI, MI
    • Small farms, no cash crops
    • No major labor, slavery dies out
  • Cash crops thrive in south
    • Whitney’s cotton gin
    • Mass produce cotton
    • Large plantations, demand for slavery
slavery becomes entrenched
Slavery Becomes Entrenched
  • Plantations require large labor force
  • Slaves profitable
  • Production of cotton increased # of slaves
  • 1790-1810:
    • Cotton production
      • 3,000 bales to 178,000 bales
    • Slave population
      • 700,000 to 1.2 million
clay proposes american system
Clay Proposes American System
  • Madison’s Plan
    • Protective tariff
    • Resurrecting national bank
    • Transportation systems
  • Backed by Henry C. Clay
  • Approve Tariff of 1816
  • Second Bank of United States
transportation improvements
Transportation Improvements
  • Improvement of national roads
  • National Road in 1811, MD to IL
  • 1817-1825 Erie Canal built
  • Connected Atlantic to Great Lakes
the steamboat
The Steamboat
  • 1807: Robert Fulton
  • What’s difference from older ships?
  • Carried freight & passengers
  • Used all waterways
supreme court boosts national power
Supreme Court Boosts National Power
  • 1808: Fulton receives charter
  • Exclusive right to all NY waterways
  • Profit leads to monopoly
  • Monopoly: exclusive legal control of a commercial activity
  • Charge operators for licenses
  • Different licenses for various parts of rivers
ogden v gibbons
Ogden v. Gibbons
  • 2 steamboat operators compete over territory
  • Aaron Ogden & Thomas Gibbons
  • Hudson into NJ
  • Ogden sues Gibbons
  • SC rules interstate commerce regulated only by federal gov’t
  • Strengthen gov’t control over economy
  • 1819: McCulloch v. Maryland
    • Declared tax on bank unconstitutional
nationalism shapes foreign policy
Nationalism Shapes Foreign Policy
  • John Quincy Adams est. foreign policy on nationalism
  • National interests over regional
  • Security & expansion
  • Treaties with Britain
  • 1819: Adams-Onis Treaty: Spain cedes FL
monroe doctrine
Monroe Doctrine
  • Russia & European countries expanding
  • Need to respond
  • Americans want Mexico & Cuba
  • 1823: Monroe warns European powers to stay out of Western Hemisphere
  • U.S. would stay out of European affairs
missouri compromise
Missouri Compromise
  • Missouri wants in
  • Until 1818: 10 free, 10 slave
  • IL enters as free state
  • Missouri slave state?
  • Bill passed: Missouri frees slaves
  • South accuses North of ending slavery
  • Civil war?
  • 1820: Maine enters free, Missouri slave
expanding democracy changes politics
Expanding Democracy Changes Politics
  • John Q. Adams inadequate
  • Ties Jackson election 1824
    • Popular
    • Electoral
  • Henry Clay swings election
  • Doesn’t like Jackson
  • Jacksonians split from Republican party
  • To form what party?
    • Democratic Republican
democracy and citizenship
Democracy and Citizenship
  • States expand suffrage
  • Less requirements to vote
  • Election of 1824
    • 350,000 voters
  • Election of 1828
    • About 1.2 million
jackson s new presidential style
Jackson’s New Presidential Style
  • Appeals to common people
  • Wins election of 1828 by landslide
  • “Old Hickory” finally in office
  • Federal positions held 4 years
  • Implements spoils system
  • Giving federal jobs to friends
removal of native americans
Removal of Native Americans
  • Mixed feelings among whites
  • Five Civilized Tribes
  • Occupy valuable lands
    • GA, NC, SC, etc
  • Jackson forces Natives west
  • Congress passes Indian Removal Act
  • Claim would maintain way of life
trail of tears
Trail of Tears
  • US troops move more NA
  • Cherokee sue Jackson
  • Marshall sides with Cherokee
  • Jackson doesn’t listen
  • Land given to federal gov’t
  • 800 mile trip west
  • More than 25% die
tariff raises states rights issue
Tariff Raises States’ Rights Issue
  • Tariff of 1828, Tariff of Abominations
    • Less trade w/Britain
    • Southerners hurt financially
  • North benefitting?
  • Attacked by John C. Calhoun
  • Makes it states’ rights issue
  • “South Carolina Exposition”
the nullification theory
The Nullification Theory
  • South forced to buy Northern goods
  • Farmers leaving SC
  • Calhoun challenges Constitution
  • Argues states have right to nullify a law
  • Or had right to cede from Union
debate between hayne webster
Debate between Hayne & Webster
  • Robert Hayne(SC) & Daniel Webster(MA)
  • Hayne for states’ rights
    • Tariffs will condemn South
    • Federal gov’t limitless power
  • Webster for federal government
    • No middle course
    • Resistance lead to rebellion
  • What was Jackson’s view?
    • “Our Union: it must be preserved.”
south carolina rebels
South Carolina Rebels
  • 1832: SC opposed Tariff of 1832
  • Tariffs of 1828 & 1832 nullified by SC
  • Threaten to secede
  • Jackson furious, threat of his own
  • Troops to SC
  • Henry Clay makes compromise
    • Tariff of 1833 – duties gradually lowered
jackson attacks national bank
Jackson Attacks National Bank
  • Nat. Bank in Phila.
  • 1832: Jackson vetoes renewal of BUS
  • Charter expires in 1836
  • Clay & Webster use charter as campaign ploy
  • Think Jackson will lose support w/ veto
  • Underestimate public dislike of bank
jackson opposes bank
Jackson Opposes Bank
  • “Banks don’t care about common people”
  • Corrupt in politics
  • Richer become richer
  • Federal tax revenues in BUS, NOT state/private banks
  • Stockholders earn interest
  • Lower rates for congressmen
  • Pet Banks destroy BUS
  • BUS charter doesn’t pass
  • Clay/Webster form Whig Party
successors deal with jackson s legacy
Successors Deal with Jackson’s Legacy
  • Jackson’s bank war inherited by Martin Van Buren
  • Leads to Panic of 1837
  • Election of 1840
  • Harrison dies after month
  • John Tyler inherits presidency