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Some leadership questions:. Who are the most admired leaders (living or deceased) in the world? What is it about them that makes them the most admired? Who are the 2 most significant leaders in your life? What is it about them that makes them the most significant?

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some leadership questions
Some leadership questions:
  • Who are the most admired leaders (living or deceased) in the world?
  • What is it about them that makes them the most admired?
  • Who are the 2 most significant leaders in your life?
  • What is it about them that makes them the most significant?
  • How would you categorize what makes them admired/significant?
slide3

Leadership’s Importance

Empirical evidence of the magnitude of the effects on performance is modest.

Why?

  • Similarity across selected individuals
    • Similar background, experience, qualifications
  • No unilateral control over resources
    • Major decisions require approval, review, and modification by others
  • Many uncontrollable factors
    • External factors may be overwhelming and uncontrollable
slide4

Physical Characteristics

Intelligence

Effective

Leaders

Supervisory

Ability

Personality

Trait Approach

Identifying intellectual, emotional, physical, and other personal traits of effective leaders.

slide5

Behavioral Approach: UM Studies

Leadership Styles

Employee-Centered

  • Focuses on the people doing the work
  • Uses delegation
  • Creates a supportive work environment to satisfy needs
  • Emphasizes individual and group development

Job-Centered

  • Focuses on completing the task
  • Uses close supervision
  • Relies on reward, legitimate, and coercive power
  • Concern for people not a priority
slide6

Behavioral Approach: OSU Studies

Leadership Factors

Consideration

  • Leader emphasizes
    • Friendship
    • Mutual trust
    • Respect
    • Rapport
  • Supports open communication and participation

Initiating Structure

  • Leader organizes and defines relationships
  • Establishes well-defined patterns and channels of communication
  • Spells out ways of getting the job done
  • Focuses on goals and results
slide7

Shortcomings of the Trait and Behavioral Approaches

Trait and Behavioral Approaches

  • Lack applicability across situations
  • Fail to consider the interaction among:
    • People
    • Tasks
    • Environment

Refinements

Situational Theories of Leadership

slide8

The Contingency Leadership Model

The performance of groups is dependent on the interaction between leadership style and situational favorableness.

SITUATIONAL FAVORABLENESS

  • Leader-member relations
    • Degree of trust, respect
  • Task Structure
    • Specificity of tasks
  • Position Power
    • Power inherent in leader’s position

LEADERSHIP STYLE

  • Least-Preferred Coworker Scale (LPC)
  • Assesses the degree of positive or negative feelings
  • Scores on the LPC
    • Low - Task-oriented
    • High - Relationship-oriented
slide9

The Contingency Leadership Model

Situational Characteristics

Situation

I

VIII

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

Leader-member relations

Good

Good

Good

Good

Poor

Poor

Poor

Poor

Task structure

High

High

Low

Low

High

High

Low

Low

Position power

Strong

Weak

Strong

Weak

Strong

Weak

Strong

Weak

Preferred leadership style

Task-Oriented

Task-Oriented

Relationship-Oriented

Very Favorable

Very Unfavorable

slide10

Subordinate Attitudes

  • Job satisfaction
  • Acceptance of the leader
  • Effort-performance-reward expectations

Leadership Styles

  • Directive
  • Supportive
  • Participative
  • Achievement-oriented

Situational Variables

  • Personal characteristics of followers/subordinates
  • Environmental pressures and demands

Path-Goal Model

Focuses on how the leader influences the followers’

perceptions of work goals, self-development goals,

and paths to goal attainment.

Major

Components

slide11

Path-Goal Model

  • Follower/Subordinate Characteristics
  • Locus of Control
  • Experience
  • Ability
  • Leader Behavior/Styles
  • Directive
  • Supportive
  • Participative
  • Achievement-Oriented
  • Environmental Factors
  • Tasks
  • Formal Authority System
  • Work Group
  • Outcomes
  • Satisfaction
  • Performance
  • Followers/Subordinates
  • Perceptions
  • Motivation
slide12

THEN

Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)

Emphasis is on the followers and

their level of maturity.

Decide on a Leadership Style

  • Telling (S1)
  • Selling (S2)
  • Participating (S3)
  • Delegating (S4)

Leaders Must Judge Follower Readiness

  • Job-related
    • Knowledge and ability to do the job
  • Psychological
    • Self-motivation and willingness or desire to do the job
situational leadership model
Situational Leadership Model

Participating (S3)

Selling (S2)

(High)

Supportive behavior

Relationship Behavior

Delegating (S4)

Telling (S1)

(Low)

Task Behavior

Guidance

(High)

Follower Readiness

R4

R3

R2

R1

slide14

Leader-Member Exchange Approach

Emphasizes differing relationships that leaders develop with different subordinates.

Subordinates Classified as:

  • Out-group members
    • Those having less in common with the leader and do not share much with him/her
  • Likely receive
    • Less challenging assignments
    • Little positive reinforcement

Subordinates Classified as:

  • In-group members
    • Those having a common bond and value system and interact with the leader
  • Likely receive
    • More challenging assignments
    • More meaningful rewards
slide15

Individual, task, environmental, and organizational characteristics

Can influence which leadership style to use to affect follower satisfaction or performance

Can tend to negate the leader’s ability to affect follower satisfaction or performance.

SUBSTITUTES FOR LEADERSHIP

SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP

Substitutes for Leadership

Task, organizational, or subordinate characteristics that render relationship- and/or task-oriented leadership as not only impossible but unnecessary.

slide16
Similarities

Focus on the dynamics of leadership

Have stimulated research on leadership

Remain controversial because of:

Measurement problems

Limited research testing

Contradictory results

Differences

Situational variables discussed in each approach differ somewhat

Differing views of outcome criteria

Leader effectiveness

Satisfaction

Performance

Acceptance

Comparing the Situational Approaches

other leadership concepts
Other leadership concepts?

Good To Great, Jim Collins

Geeks & Geezers, Warren G. Bennis and Robert J. Thomas

?

jim collins level 5 leadership model
Jim Collins’ Level 5 Leadership Model

Level 5

Level 5 Executive

Builds enduring greatness through a paradoxical

blend of personal humility and professional will.

Level 4

Effective Executive

Catalyzes commitment to and vigorous

pursuit of a clear and compelling vision,

stimulating higher performance standards.

Level 3

Competent Manager

Organizes people and resources toward the

effective and efficient pursuit of predetermined objectives.

Level 2

Contributing Team Member

Contributes individual capabilities to the achievement of group objectives and

Works effectively with others in a group setting.

Level 1

Highly Capable Individual

Makes productive contributions through talent, knowledge, skills, and good work habits.

the two sides of level 5 leadership
Personal Will

Creates superb results, a clear catalyst in the transition from good to great.

Demonstrates an unwavering resolve to do whatever must be done to produce the best long-term results, no matter how difficult.

Sets the standard of building an enduring great company; will settle for nothing less.

Looks in the mirror, not out the window, to apportion responsibility for poor results, never blaming other people, external factors, or bad luck.

Personal Humility

Demonstrates a compelling modesty, shunning public adulation; never boastful.

Acts with quiet, calm determination; relies principally on inspired standards, not inspiring charisma, to motivate.

Channels ambition into the company, not the self; sets up successors for even greater success in the next generation.

Looks out the window, not in the mirror, to apportion credit for the success of the company-to other people, external factors, and good luck.

The Two Sides of Level 5 Leadership
bennis and thomas leadership development model
Bennis’ and Thomas’ Leadership Development Model

Era

Experiences

  • Leadership competencies
  • Adaptive capacity
    • Hardiness
    • First-class noticer
    • Learning learning
    • Proactively seizing opportunities
    • Creativity
  • Engaging others by creating
  • shared meaning
    • Encourage dissent
    • Empathy
    • Obsessive communication
  • Voice
    • Purpose
    • Self-awareness, self-confidence
    • EQ
  • Integrity
    • Ambition
    • Competence
    • Moral compass

Organization

of

Meaning

Individual

factors

Crucible