The Leadership Challenge. James M. Kouzes Barry S. Posner. Context of Leadership. Heightened uncertainty People first Global connectedness Social capital. Context of Leadership. Global economy Speed An ever-changing workforce An intense search for meaning.
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The Leadership Challenge James M. Kouzes Barry S. Posner
Context of Leadership • Heightened uncertainty • People first • Global connectedness • Social capital
Context of Leadership • Global economy • Speed • An ever-changing workforce • An intense search for meaning
Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership • Model the Way • Inspire a Shared Vision • Challenge the Process • Enable Others to Act • Encourage the Heart
Model the Way • Find your voice by clarifying your personal values. • Set the example by aligning actions with shared values.
Inspire a Shared Vision • Envision the future by imagining exciting and ennobling possibilities. • Enlist others in a common vision by appealing to shared aspirations.
Challenge the Process • Search for opportunities by seeking innovative ways to change, grow, and improve. • Experiment and take risks by constantly generating small wins and learning from mistakes.
Enable Others to Act • Foster collaboration by promoting cooperative goals and building trust. • Strengthen others by sharing power and discretion.
Encourage the Heart • Recognize contributions by sowing appreciation for individual excellence. • Celebrate the values and victories by creating a spirit of community.
Characteristics of Admired Leaders • Honest • Forward-looking • Competent • Inspiring
Managers with High Credibility • Proud to tell others they’re part of the organization • Feel a strong sense of team spirit • See personal values as consistent with those of the organization • Feel attached/committed to the organization • Sense of ownership in organization
Managers with Low Credibility • Produce only if they’re watched carefully • Motivated primarily by money • Say good things about the organization publicly, criticize it privately • Often consider looking for another job • Feel unsupported & unappreciated
Credibility is the Foundation • Credibility Makes a Difference • The Requirement/Predicament of Being Forward-Looking • What is Credibility Behaviorally?
Establishing Credibility DWYSYWD Do What You Say You Will Do
Clarify Your Values • Values Are Guides • Personal Values Clarity Makes a Difference • Explore Your Inner Territory • Listen to the Masters
Express Yourself • In Your Own Words • Three Stages of Self-Expression - Looking Out - Looking In - Moving On
Clarifying Your Personal Values • Look in the mirror • Take time for contemplations • Write a tribute to yourself • Record lessons from leaders you admire
Clarifying Your Personal Values • Write your credo • Engage in a credo dialogue & assessment • Collect stories that teach values • Audit your ability to succeed
Build & Affirm Shared Values • The Power of Shared Values • Why Shared Values Are Important
Align Actions with Values • Calendars: Spend Time & Pay Attention • Critical Incidents: Seize Opportunities to Teach • Stories, Analogies, & Metaphors: Use the Timeless Way to Teach Virtues
Align Actions with Values • Language: Choose Words & Questions Deliberately • Measurements: Recognize that What Gets Measured Gets Done
Set the Example: Align Actions/Values • Create alignment around key values • Speak about shared values with enthusiasm and confidence – even drama • Teach & reinforce through symbols/artifacts • Lead by storytelling
Set the Example: Align Actions/Values • Put storytelling on your meeting agendas • Ask questions • Keep score • Do a personal audit
Discover the Theme • Express Your Passion • Explore Your Past • Pay Attention to Your Experiences • Immerse Yourself
Imagine the Possibilities • Find Meaning in the Ideal • Take Pride in Being Unique • Make Images of the Future • Look to the Future
Envisioning the Future • Read a biography of a visionary leader • Think about your past • Determine the “something” you want to do • Write an article about how you’ve made a difference
Envisioning the Future • Write your vision statement • Become a futurist • Test your assumptions • Rehearse with visualizations & affirmations
Enlist Others • Develop a Shared Sense of Destiny • Listen Deeply to Others • Discover & Appeal to a Common Purpose • Give Life to a Vision
Give Life to a Vision • Use Powerful Language • Practice Positive Communication • Tap Into Nonverbal Expressiveness
Enlist Others – Appeal to Shared Aspirations • Get to know your constituents • Find the common ground • Draft a collective vision • Expand your communication skills
Enlist Others – Appeal to Shared Aspirations • Breathe life into your vision • Speak from the heart • Listen first…and often • Hang out
Search for Opportunities • Join the Voyage of Discovery • Seize the Initiative • Make Challenge Meaningful • Innovate & Create • Look Outward for Fresh Ideas
Seize the Initiative • Make Something Happen • Encourage Initiative in others • Lead Through Assigned Work
Seek Innovative Ways to Change, Grow & Improve • Treat every job as an adventure • Seek meaningful challenges for yourself • Find & create meaningful challenges for others • Add fun to everyone’s work
Seek Innovative Ways to Change, Grow & Improve • Question the status quo • Renew your teams • Create an open-source approach to searching for opportunities • Send everyone shopping for ideas
Experiment & Take Risks • Initiate Incremental Steps & Small Wins • Learn from Mistakes • Promote Psychological Hardiness
Generating Small Wins • Setup little experiment & develop models • Make it safe for others to experiment • Break mindsets • Break it up & break it down
Generating Small Wins • Give people choices • Accumulate yeses • Admit your mistakes • Conduct pre- and postmortems for every project
Collaboration Improves Performance • Create a Climate of Trust • Facilitate Positive Interdependence • Support Face-to-Face Interactions
Create a Climate of Trust • Trusting Others Pays Off • Be Open to Influence • Make Yourself Vulnerable • Listen, Listen, Listen
Positive Interdependence • Develop Cooperative Goals & Roles • Support Norms of Reciprocity • Reward Joint Effort
Support Face-to-Face Interactions • Sustain Ongoing Interaction • Link to the Human Network • Connect Others to Sources of Power • Share Information & Resources • Develop Social Awareness & Social Skills
Cooperative Goals & Building Trust • Conduct a collaboration audit • Be the first to trust • Ask questions, listen, and take advice • Always say “we” • Create jigsaw groups
Cooperative Goals & Building Trust • Focus on gains, not losses • Make a list of alternative currencies • Take a lot of human moments • Create places and opportunities for informal interactions
Generate Power All Around • Ensure Self-Leadership • Provide Choice • Develop Competence & Confidence • Foster Accountability
Develop Competence & Confidence • Share the Data • Practice Problem-Solving • Confidence Provides a Way • Leaders Coach
Sharing Power & Discretion • Offer visible supports • Assign critical tasks • Enrich people’s jobs • Use modeling to develop competencies
Sharing Power & Discretion • Stop talking & start building at staff meetings • Enlarge people’s sphere of influence • Educate, educate, educate • Create a learning climate
Recognize Contributions • Focus on Clear Standards • Expect the Best • Pay Attention • Personalize Recognition
Focus on Clear Standards • Standards Concentrate Us • Feedback Keeps Us Engaged • Encouragement is Feedback