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Leadership. There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things. Machiavelli. Management" versus Leadership. 'Leadership'

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There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things.


management versus leadership
Management" versus Leadership


  • a road, a way, the path of a ship at sea - a sense of direction.

'Management' (Latin manus) - a hand, handling a sword, a ship, a horse.

  • 19thC corporatism and industrialisation - managerial agents

What do managers and leaders do? (Zaleznik 1977)

Managers focus attention & energy on

  • how things get done
  • their role in events that occur or in a decision-making process.

Leaders more concerned with

  • ideas
  • relating to others in more intuitive, empathetic ways
  • what events and decisions mean to people
classical management
Classical management


  • plan, organise, direct, control resources to achieve objectives.
  • follow formal policies, rules &procedural regulations of their employing organisation (administration > management?)
  • handle and physically direct resources:
    • money, materials, machinery, equipment, space, facilities,
    • information and technology
    • use of time
    • people

Telling people what to do and how to do it more than vision and giving a sense of direction?

leadership messages
Leadership 'messages'

Managers have 'subordinates' and communicate

  • enable others to understand information, instructions or ideas
  • seek order and control

Leaders have followers. They

  • envision, influence, inspire.
  • tolerate, promote creativity and imagination
  • Bring order from chaos
  • influence people towards objectives and desire to achieve
  • gain voluntary commitment over compliance
  • win hearts and minds
bennis 1989
Bennis (1989)


  • Administer and copy
  • Maintain
  • Focus on systems & structure
  • Rely on control
  • Short-range view - bottom line
  • Ask how and when
  • Accept the status quo
  • Classic good soldier
  • Do things right


  • Innovation and originality
  • Develop
  • Focus on people
  • Inspire trust
  • Long-range view - the horizon
  • Ask what and why
  • Challenge the status quo
  • Own person
  • Do the right things

'the liberation of talent rather than restraint by rule’ Leaders aim at 'winning hearts and minds'. Mere managers aim at optimising the use of 'resources'. (Peters & Austin, 1985).

leadership organisational effectiveness
Leadership & organisational effectiveness
  • Common-sense + research link between manager- leadership behaviour & subordinate performance.
  • belief that business success has much to do with 'leadership'.
  • management development programmes emphasise manager and leadership style.
  • Can leadership and problem-solving skills really be developed from
    • simulated experienced in a field (outward bound approach)?
    • assessment centre activity (workshop-like selection & development)?
    • coaching and mentoring
    • going on a leadership course?
    • Reading a book, watching the TV?
    • Playing rugby or football?
practitioners academia and recipes
Practitioners, academia and recipes
  • a mix of traditional and behavioural science approaches
  • few analytical studies of leadership offer much to the practical manager (Adair)
  • academic doubts
  • textbooks tend to
    • Report 'theories'
    • Some query the validity of particular approaches
    • Imply prescriptions
  • An industry selling
    • prescriptive 'leadership development' and interpersonal skills packages: motivating, listening, participative problem solving, assertiveness and transforming skills
leadership behaviour effect on performance
Leadership behaviour & effect on performance.
  • Change involving 'people' is associated with leadership
  • What competencies can be meaningfully described as 'leadership'?
  • Managers & politicians generalise - 'we know it when we see it'.
  • Correlate the skills and success of particular personalities.

Mayo and Hawthorne experiments (Roethlisberger & Dickson, 1939)

  • 'permissive' leadership behaviour leads to greater output

Kurt Lewin (1939)

  • Autocratic, Laissez faire, Democratic leader styles & the behaviour/performance of youth groups
  • language & 'model' linking styles --> subordinate performance
unitary vs pluralistic frame of reference
Unitary (vs. pluralistic) frame of reference
  • Unitary
    • One set of values, beliefs, commitments
    • Shared understanding & commitment to objectives
    • One source of leadership
    • Team members - All pulling in the same direction
    • Potential for harmony is assumed if leader communicates well
    • Disagreements è the result of misunderstanding
    • Dissidents – "rabble" hypothesis

Alan Fox – Research Paper to Donovan Commission 1968

change the people in post
Change the people in post
  • Selection and job change can profoundly effect organisational effectiveness. Peters and Waterman (1982)
    • ' Hewlett-Packard Way' & 'MbWA’ (Management by walk about)
  • Pascale & Athos (1982) compare 'styles' and effect
    • compared the styles and management practices of
      • founder of Matsushita (National Panasonic)
      • American CEOs
    • 'good' and 'bad' leadership styles
      • Konosuke Matsushita & E. Carlson - United Airlines ('good')
      • Harold Geneen at ITT (short-term effective, long-term bad).
      • Margaret Thatcher vs. Tony Blair?
how do different styles affect an organisation
How do different 'styles' affect an organisation?
  • wide ranging question
  • open to question
  • difficult to research - what are the variables?
  • difficult to
    • separate fact from fiction
    • attribute cause and effect in different contexts and organisational settings over time
    • ambiguity of measures of organisational performance
  • gap between perception of practitioners and behavioural scientists
typology of leadership theory



situation & L-F


trait theory

variable of


The Person



dynamics +


the followers

style theory

variable of




specific to situation


Breadth of application

Typology of leadership theory
  • Sometimes misleading to group as 'schools'. Nuances in original works
  • Yet three variables to leadership situations :
    • leader
    • followers
    • context/situation in which L/F find themselves
leadership traits approach
Leadership traits approach
  • everyday wisdom on common traits.
  • can anyone agree?
  • do some 'qualities' indicate potential & differentiate the 'effective from the ineffective'
  • Wide range of trait descriptors & variety of 'leaders' (heroes and villains) - difficult to agree on one list
cartwright and zander 1968
Cartwright and Zander (1968)

Effective leaders are often

  • more intelligent, dependable, responsible, active and participative socially
  • with higher socioecon. status
  • act more often in different ways, or the same way to different degrees in some activities?
  • give out & ask for more information
  • make more frequent interpretations of events

Nature over nurture

Leadership is learned, although I cannot explain entirely how ... The ability to lead and inspire others is .. more instinctual than premeditated and … acquired somehow through the experiences of one's everyday life …. the nature & quality of that leadership comes out of … innate character & personality…

Harold Geneen ITT

psychometric tests for assessment and selection.

  • Think of three managers you have known. List the qualities of those you rate as being more effective managers
  • Do a separate list for three less effective ones.
  • What factors, or qualities, recur on each list?
  • Select four leaders from national or organisational life and list their qualities. Which ones keep recurring?
  • What factors match those for your effective managers?
limitations of traits approach
Limitations of 'traits' approach
  • when leaders behave towards followers in different ways, how much is cause, how much is effect?
  • non-leaders often possess the same traits as leaders.
  • Impossible to compile a list of universal traits.
    • Bird 1940 identified 79 different traits from 'the literature'. Only 5% common to => 4 studies


  • Consider the situation that leadership occurs in.
the group dynamics group process approach
The group dynamics (group process) approach
  • leadership as a function of organisation not the individual.
  • small task groups not whole organisation
  • three common functional behaviours:
    • accomplish the task
    • social & emotional needs of group
    • social & emotional needs of individual members.
  • failure in one affects the other two (performance & satisfaction).
  • Leader contributions?
    • Structuring - integrating
    • Calming, supporting
    • Controlling
  • But one 'leader' may not necessarily perform all
  • roles from 'trouble-shooters' to 'counsellors' - Belbin roles
  • 'Cometh the hour, cometh the man'.
adair action centred leadership
Adair: Action-centred leadership

functional emphasis based on task situation and socio-emotional needs

  • Aware of group processes, people in group, nuances of behaviour, interpersonal skills







vertical dyad linkage vdl model danserau 1975
Vertical Dyad Linkage (VDL) Model (Danserau 1975)
  • Leader may use different style for member (idiosyncrasies)
  • Social exchange - leader-member relationships (dyads)
  • Group = a set of vertical linkages
  • Two sub-groups of relationships
  • In-group members
  • For the leader - reliable, effort, initiative, open, trust and confidence, autonomy
  • Out-group members
  • Calculative, do contract only, distant, tension dyad
  • Leadership - a negotiated VDL role
anthony jay 1975 propositions
Anthony Jay (1975) - Propositions
  • Cohesive groups or teams working as a social unit (a 'ten group') achieve more than individuals in isolation. Based on
    • Anecdotal, experiential evidence
    • analogy with primitive tribes & animal behaviour Morris (1967, 1969), Ardrey (1961, 1967, 1970).
    • Share common patterns with baboons, chickens, lions?
  • Leadership is not a personal quality.
  • Some have innate tendency and drive for high-status dominance but this is one factor only
    • become leader only in relation to specific group & task
    • group leader emerges because the group thinks that he/she can best help the group
critique of group dynamics approach
Critique of Group Dynamics approach
  • If leadership behaviour is situationally and group related what happens when the situation or group changes?
  • Does the organisation function sub-optimally?


  • we comprehend how leaders may relate to followers & situations
  • ignores wider organisational demands on leader and group.
the leadership style approach
The leadership style approach
  • Hawthorne experiments origin
    • Leader 'style' affects morale and output.
    • Relay Assembly room - increased output caused by 'permissive' management of researchers
    • Bank Wiring room - links management style and employee attitudes and behaviour
  • Kurt Lewin et al 1939 - adult leaders in boys' hobby club
    • Autocratic, laissez faire, democratic leaders and follower behaviour
    • Democratic style reflects dominant social values
    • Impetus for further study - Michigan and Ohio State
ohio state studies two factor theory
Ohio State studies (two factor-theory)

Flieshman 1953

Stogdill (1948, 1956)

  • two (independent) L-dimensions
    • initiating structure (task centred)
    • consideration (interpersonal relationships)
  • "measure" perceptions & style preferences in various settings ---> inventories & development prescriptions
  • effectiveness reflects
    • task completion
    • member satisfaction
  • High task supervisors - productive but high turnover, lower morale
  • High consideration supervisors - high morale, low productivity
  • Over-generalised conclusions
    • ideal leader = high on initiation + consideration.
    • participative styles preferred
ohio state findings balancing initiation consideration
Ohio State findings - balancing initiation & consideration
  • crews & superiors rate aircraft commanders by:
    • technical competence
    • effectiveness in working with other crew members
    • performance under stress
    • conformity to standard operating procedures
    • overall effectiveness as crew members
  • Crews & senior officers differed in perception of commander styles & effectiveness
    • Superiors judge leader competence in terms of
      • formal & traditional standards
      • high initiating & low or indifferent consideration.
    • Subordinates give less significance to initiating. High satisfaction under 'considerate' commanders (seen as more competent).
linking pin likert
Linking Pin (Likert)


  • Effective leaders fulfil group needs & functions in a situation
  • Frustration, low productivity, absentees & turnover if formal-L can’t perform all these.

Formal tasks.

  • instrumental competencies & motives
  • technical know-how, innovation, sense of achievement, concern for quality & customer care


  • interaction, support & expressive needs
  • Weak formal-L. Informal alternative emerges

If L-behaviour best fits group situation, what if this changes?

  • Can formal leader adapt?
  • will group, dept, nation (led by alternative) perform optimally?









critique of ohio state studies
Critique of Ohio State Studies
  • Did not use peer group evaluation by commanders or non-evaluative measures of performance.
  • output measures can often be favourably affected in the short term by authoritarian leadership.
  • Usual problems of social research
    • Hawthorne effect
    • Abstracted empiricism
    • likelihood that a change in performance is related to more than one variable
michigan leadership studies
Michigan Leadership Studies

Managerial Grid

  • programmes for changing style & org. culture
  • 'proprietary' approaches to assessment & training
  • Diagnosis and treatment
  • Blake - Mouton Managerial Grid (1968)
  • Extended with contingency focus
    • Tannenbaum 1958
    • Reddin (1970)
    • Hersey &Blanchard (1977)



the ideal

one-best style


Concern for people







Concern for production

tannenbaum schmidt continuum








Tannenbaum-Schmidt Continuum



use of authority by


decision making &

action freedom for


Continuum based on situational factors:

value system, wants, confidence, willingness.

  • Review your experiences of working under different leadership styles. Advantages & disadvantages of a shift to a more 'participative' style?
  • What departments in your organisation appear to operate with different 'leadership cultures'? Account for the differences.
critique of style theories
Critique of style theories
  • Universality of the style approach?
  • Ambiguous evidence for usefulness of ' style' theories
  • Style changes often assoc. with changes in org. structure + other mgt competencies .
  • Fiedler (1967) questions whether participative, considerate styles are better than trad. authoritarian or directive.
  • Ineffective L-training - weak transfer of behaviour change from directive to participative.
  • Organisational & work pressures - own & other people's expectations.
contingency approach fiedler 1967
Contingency approach - Fiedler (1967)

Defines L-effectiveness as behaviour that ---> high task performance by group. Depends on

  • preferred style of leader
  • group situation as much as leader
  • contextual variables
  • Quality of L-member relations
  • Work structure (high to low)
  • Leader position power
  • Respected leaders have personal power. No need to use position power (authority)
  • High structure? non- compliance? Easy intervention. Unstructured, hard measure? Cannot easily enforce. Less power
  • extent of formal authority over rewards and sanctions Power is not just dependent leader-follower relationships.
fielder development prescription
Fielder development prescription

Measure preferred style

  • least preferred co-worker LPC instrument
  • 8 scales e.g. cooperative-uncooperative, friendly-unfriendly, supportive-hostile
  • High LPC - relationships oriented
  • Low LPC - task oriented

- External circumstances affect L ability to influence

- Change leader (personality?) to fit situation or restructure to reflect strengths?

  • Re-structure the work - How?
  • position power - depending on L. assessment, give subordinates near-equal 'rank' (experts) or assign several ranks below
  • Loosen or tighten communication and decision-making
  • leader-member relations - leader can be similar or dissimilar to members (social, educational or ethnic background, values or attitudes)
  • A history of harmony or conflict? Assign a leader whose style fits group

Fiedler and Garcia 1987 pp 49-55

See Chapter 13 Rollinson

implications and critique of fielder
Implications and critique of Fielder

If Fielder is right

  • don’t try to change people arrange task & power to fit situation
    • select leaders & identify preferred styles. Diagnose situation and change it for - best fit leader-match concept


  • can a manager really choose a style, change 'personality' and a virtuoso with different styles?
  • Leadership training targets this. Are they training pigs to fly?
  • LPC scores may indicate attitudes or personality but not actual behaviour
  • Task performance is sole criterion for evaluating effectiveness (neglects follower satisfaction)
  • L-processes are more sophisticated than this theory. Mixed evidence on validity - other variables ignored


  • a deeper study which breaks the 'one-best-style' view and addresses contextual variables
exam questions
Exam Questions
  • Evaluate the significance of Fiedler's 'social engineering' approach to the development of thinking on leadership and manager development practice.
  • Evaluate how the Fiedler 'contingency and social engineering approach' to leadership could work in any organisation known to you.
reddin s 3 d model a style contingency approach















Reddin's 3-D model (a style-contingency approach)


  • Is Blake - Mouton (1968) 9.9 style ideal?
  • style is more/less effective in situation









situational leadership model hersey blanchard 1977 1982
Situational leadership model (Hersey & Blanchard 1977, 1982)
  • A contingency approach with follower maturity as critical situational variable for L-effectiveness.
  • two major dimensions
    • task style
    • relationship style
  • Four styles
    • telling, selling, participating, delegating.
  • follower maturity
    • degree of achievement motivation
    • willingness to take on responsibility
    • education or experience
  • Theoretically weak
  • no proper rationale for the hypothesised relationships
  • Maturity - an over-simplified factor - lacks empirical support (Yukl, 1981; Graeff, 1983; Blank et al, 1990).
path goal theory contingency approach
Path-goal theory (contingency approach)

Main idea

  • Effective-L smooths subordinates' path goals using appropriate style, contingent on situational variables
  • differs from Fiedler
  • various styles - directive, supportive, participative and achievement-oriented - can be used by the same leader in different situations to
    • influence subordinates' perceptions of the situational factors
    • motivate by focusing on payoffs
    • coaching and direction
    • clarifying goals and expectancies
    • reducing frustrations/barriers.
  • the research is not conclusive
  • House & Mitchell 1974
  • Based on expectancy theory of motivation
problems with contingency theories
Problems with contingency theories
  • what causes what in real life?
  • As with style theories, it is difficult to understand why there should be a favourable climate towards the leader in some groups.
  • It could be argued that 'permissive' leadership is the result, rather than the cause, of group effectiveness.
social learning theory and leadership
Social learning theory and leadership
  • a model for continuous interaction between the environment (macro variables + subordinates and the leader's behaviour, perceptions and cognitions.
  • leader & subordinates/followers have negotiable, interactive relationship
  • They learn how they can modify or influence each other's behaviour by giving or holding back desired rewards
    • Davis and Luthans, 1980
    • Sims and Lorenzi, The New Leadership Paradigm, Sage, 1992
why the persistent search
Why the persistent search ?
  • exercising effective-L is becoming more and more difficult
    • economic shifts Pacific Rim and China etc.
    • political change South Africa, Soviet Union, Italy, Japan and Europe
    • less natural goodwill and traditional deference towards leaders
  • Many skills and techniques of today's senior executives are being superseded.
  • Competition & changing markets, products, technologies and expectations dictate adaptability and innovation in strategic decision making, marketing, organisation - and leadership
are successful leaders redefining their role
Are successful leaders redefining their role?
  • projecting a particular ethos and culture
  • powerful vision of where their companies or their societies are heading.
  • E.g. Prime Minister Dr Mahathir Mohamed's vision of Malaysia in the year 2020
  • former Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew's vision of Singapore as The Switzerland of the East by 1999.
  • What does this imply for leadership behaviour?
  • Managers and senior executives who are successful leaders will not only respond to change positively but also actively create change.
  • Leaders with a particular drive, a desire to bring order out of chaos, or, if something is too cosy, to create chaos in order to bring change.
transformational leadership theory
Transformational leadership theory
  • fresh thinking?
  • transformational leader creates conditions for followers to want to achieve results and to fulfil themselves.
  • bridges small group studies & leadership by ’movers and shakers’ who transform organisations
  • Context? late-20thC national & global pol-econ. change
  • Contributors: Downton (1973), Burns (1978), Bass (1985), Bennis & Nanus (1985), Tichy & Devanna (1986)
  • Bass surveyed 70 execs"In your careers, who transformed you in Burns' terms (raised awareness, move up Maslow hierarchy …. to transcend self-interest).
  • Answer: usually an organisational superior.
from laissez faire to transactional
From Laissez faire to Transactional
  • Laissez-faire not really leaders at all, avoid intervention, weak follow up, passivity, potential for confusion
  • Transactional leaders
    • Management by exception

Passive: set standards/objectives, wait for, react to, reluctant intervention. Status quo

Active: standards/objectives, monitor, correct, look for error,

enforce rules/procedures. Low initiative and risk-taking

constructive transactions, contingent rewards

    • agree standards/objectives, feedback, rewards for achievement.
    • outcome: performance that meets expectations.
    • simplified in One-Minute Manager (Blanchard & Johnson 1982)
    • Airport business library
transactional leadership in perspective
Transactional leadership in perspective
  • Mixed evidence - it may be desirable, even necessary. Contingent rewards underpin PRP
  • laissez-faire and transactional in directive, consultative, participative & delegative styles
    • directive + Mgt by Exception

'These are the rules and this is how you've broken them'.

    • participative + Mgt by exception

'Let's work out together the rules to identify mistakes'

  • Weaknesses
    • Carrot/stick rewards, emphasis on plans, targets, systems, controls
    • management > leadership
    • fails to develop, motivate, bring to full potential (Bass)
the transformational leader bass s four i s
The transformational leader (Bass’s four 'I's)


  • follower desire for achievement & self-development.
  • teams, esprit de corps, autonomy, synergy, belief, value

Four 'I's.

  • lndividualised consideration (IC)
  • Intellectual stimulation (IS)
  • Inspirational motivation (IM)
  • ldealised influence (charisma) (II)
individualised consideration and intellectual stimulation
Individualised consideration and Intellectual stimulation


  • identifying individuals' needs & abilities, opportunities to learn, delegating, coaching and giving developmental feedback. Spend time with individuals e.g. mentoring.


  • question status quo, encourage imagination, creativity, logical thinking and intuition.
  • unorthodoxy in character, symbolise innovation.
  • Compare UK motorcycles & Swiss watch market to Sony
inspirational motivation ldealised influence
Inspirational motivation & ldealised influence

Inspirational motivation

  • clear vision, problems as opportunities, language & symbols
    • I had a dream …...
    • Ask not what America can do for you. Ask what you can do..
    • go the extra mile. Iacocca at Chrysler.

ldealised influence

  • Confident in communicating a virtuous vision
  • the buck stops here'. Purpose, persistence, trust, accomplishment over failure. Respected for personal ability
  • Leadership .. the priceless gift you earn from those who work for you. I have to earn the right to that gift, and continuously re-earn (it).

John Harvey-Jones (ICI)

  • Gandhi, Luther King, Thatcher, Blair
  • Hitler, Jim Jones
bass s model





4 x I








Bass's model
  • Learn TL!!
  • Avolio-Bass training package

Encouraging TL will

  • project confidence, commitment & competence
  • attract quality staff to the mission & challenge
  • develop people more fully to respond better to competition & change
motorola s six sigma programme
Motorola's six-sigma programme.

Transformational leadership application

  • defect-free parts within six standard deviations
  • concepts, symbols and vision for world-class quality
  • IS, IM, IC in promoting awareness, responsibility and self-monitoring.
is transformational leadership cross cultural
Is transformational leadership cross-cultural?
  • ‘exporting participative management or Theory Y from the USA to authoritarian cultures is like 'preaching Jeffersonian democracy to managers who believe in the divine right of kings'.

Haire, Ghiselli and Porter 1966

  • Leadership - a universal phenomenon?
    • context and culture influences
    • Bass presents evidence from studies in Italy, Sweden, Canada, New Zealand, India, Japan and Singapore
    • suggests that the model needs only fine-tuning across cultures
motivated in spite of leader do we really need em
Motivated in spite of leader? Do we really need 'em?
  • 1970s dissatisfaction with leadership theory and research in explaining effect on motivation &performance

'Substitutes' theory of leadership (Kerr & Jermier 1978)

  • Are there substitutes for leadership making L-behaviour unnecessary e.g.
    • 'Professional', competent people do not need 'leadership' to perform well and to be motivated. Depends on
      • the individuals, the work, the organisation and its structure, feedback, intrinsic job satisfaction, group cohesion, weak authority or remoteness of the leader
  • Replace/counteract leader behaviour in determining member performance and satisfaction.