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Early, High, Late Middle Ages

Early, High, Late Middle Ages

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Early, High, Late Middle Ages

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  1. Early, High, Late Middle Ages Chapter 15, 16, and 17

  2. Early Middle Ages

  3. The Dark Ages • Scholars often refer to the period from 500-1000 as the Dark Ages. • This is because Roman Empire was seen as efficient, glamorous, successful and praised as achieving the highest cultural achievements. • Forces of darkness, otherwise known as barbarians, were viewed as overwhelming the forces of light (the Romans).

  4. Movies you may remember • List of historical dramas: • King Arthur (2004) – 5th Century – Roman withdrawal from Britain and the Battle of Mount Badon • Tristan and Isolde(2006) – 6th Century – Britian and Ireland – adaptation of the Welsh legend Tristan and Iseult • Kingdom of Heaven (2005) – 1183-1190 – events which lead to the third crusade (battle of Hattin and Siege of Jerusalem) • Robin Hood (2010) – 1199 – death of Richard lionheart until the early reign of King John • Braveheart (1995) – 1296-1305 – William Wallace, scotsman who fought a for Scotland’s independence • A Knight’s Tale (2001)

  5. Historical Movies • King Arthur • • Kingdom of Heaven • • Robin Hood • • Da Vinci Code • • Think about what you’d want to watch to end the unit…

  6. Decline of Roman Empire • Took centuries to happen but eventually Western Europe would be in a gradual shift where Rome more focused on the capital of Constantinople. • Constantinople the Great (died 337 CE) created a massive religious conundrum in Constantinople. He laid the groundwork for a religious conflict that would eventually split the Christian Church into two distinct branches. • “At the heart of this conflict was the fact that Constantine – and the emporerers who succeeded him – claimed to be the spiritual leader of the empire, as well as its political and military leader. Believing that they have been appointed by God as Christ’s representative on earth, the Byzantine emperors ruled the Church with an iron hand. They appointed Church officials and issued decrees governing both Church adminstration and religious matters.” - Echoes of the Past, p. 496 • Bishops were leading officials of the early Church and the one in Rome became the pope while the bishop of Constantinople became the patriarch.

  7. Byzantine and the Church • Pope and Patriarch derive from the Greek words for father. • As time went on and power grew, battle for supremacy increased. • Eventually by the time the 11th Century came about there was a split that divided the Christian Church into two independent branches: The Easter (Greek) Orthodox Church based in Constantinople and the Roman Catholic Church based in Rome. • Magic, astrology, and soothsaying was declared illegal. • Following emporers issued laws barring other religions.

  8. Church continued • Class Discussion: • What do you think our purpose is on earth? • Do you think your mindset would be any different if you lived 1000 years ago?

  9. Justinian the Great • Wanted to reunite the Roman world as a Christian Empire. • Suppressed paganism. What is paganism? • Defeated the ostrogoths and vandals. • He persecuted anybody who did not follow the Christian way. • Justinian’s code – what is the basic premise of this? (p. 498)

  10. Barbarians • Yesterday we continually read this term in our reading. • (p. 500 -502) On a separate piece of paper, differentiate the 3 different types of Barbarians (Celts, Germanic, and Slavic. Write down 2-3 items that will make you remember the difference between them.

  11. Reading • Read 508 – 514 ‘silently’ and answer questions 1-3. • Tomorrow, be prepared to have the library

  12. January 10, 2013 • Housekeeping items • Mini-quiz on today’s and Tuesday’s Power Point tomorrow. • Start Chapter 16 and 17 this week and next. • Next week – final project/exam. • Last day of classes – January 18th, 2013. • Be sure to come talk to me regarding any NHI’s or missed work.

  13. King Arthur • Open your textbooks to 518 the • archaeological search for Arthur. • Read the feature study (you have 10 minutes)

  14. King Arthur • Answer question 1 on page 519 in your notes. *I would know how to answer this for your quiz* • Get into Groups of 6. • 15 minutes to share within your group the evidence you found from your research • yesterday. • - We will take it up as a class once everybody has gone through their findings.

  15. The High Middle Ages – Chapter 16

  16. Middle Ages Crossword • Try and complete the matches without any help. • After a few tries, use your textbook and internet (phone, ipad) as a resource • You may work in partners or groups of a few • I will hand out the answers as a last resort.

  17. Review for tomorrow • To prepare for your quiz tomorrow • Justinian Code • Two separate forms of Christianity (where, pope/patriarch which city?) • King Arthur • How to define the Dark Ages • 3 different barbaric groups • Constantine the Great and his influence in Constantinople

  18. High Middle Ages • Housekeeping items: • Final project due January 25, 2013 • No class from 28-1 • Semester 2 starts 4 of Febuary. • Spring break is 18-29. • We are finishing High Middle Ages/Late Middles Ages and Renaissance next week. • Civilization food day on January 25th, 2013 (I will hand out various assignments).

  19. The High Middle Ages • Dark Ages, or the Early Middle Ages, was seen from 500-1000. • The High Middle Ages was a period that was from 1000-1300 C.E. • There was continuous battle for land and power. • Society was becoming more Christianized. • Pope now has absolute authority. • This was the beginning of the Church becoming militarized as the pope and Church leaders went to war against heretical movements (against Christianity) both in Europe and abroad.

  20. High Middle Ages

  21. The start of Holy War • Church leaders stepped in by the year 989. • They called upon the Peace of God which is to prohibit violence against armed men. Stealing church property and assaulting or robbing clerics, pilgrims, merchants, women, and peasants were, however, to be punished by excommunication from the Church. • There was an expansion of this peace movement in 1027 with the Truce of God. It outlawed all fighting from Thursday to Monday morning, on important feast days, and during other religious periods such as Advent and Lent. A later council, held in 1054, proclaimed that “no Christian should kill another Christian since whoever kills a Christian doubtless sheds the blood of Christ” (Echoes from the past, p. 529). • It also encouraged the idea that the only combat pleasing to God was carried out in defense of Christendom. • How is this a paradox?

  22. Medieval Society • To protect territory, many leaders constructed a motte-and-bailey castle.

  23. Medieval Society • King Alfred the Great of England made a social structure called ‘estates’ • Came from the French word ‘estat’ meaning status. • It is a way of defining class in society. These estates were thought to have been ordained by God. The terms were clergy, nobles, and peasants. • People were often identified by a single name followed by a nickname that distinguished them from others. (ie. John the Miller, John of the Wood). Eventually lead to John Miller, John Wood.

  24. Feudalism – or EstatesCan you relate this to present day in any way?

  25. Wars and Conflicts • Western Europe fought battle after battle to try and expand their territory. • East against the Slavs • South against Italy, Spain and Muslims in the Holy Lands • North/West into England, Wales and Ireland. • Lords built castles to show power and provide a place in case of retreat. • Wars often included Church officials who wanted to fight against secular, non-religious, leaders who also wanted to expand. • Think back to Pope and patriarch. Both excommunicated eachother. • Currently an East-West Schism -

  26. John Lackland • King John outlasted his four brothers and was crowned King in 1199. His first name was John Lack land because he literally lacked land. He took over the throne from his father. • King John became very selfish and was seen by historians as crude and dangerous. He was forced by powerful nobles to sign the Magna Carta. The Magna Carta is a document that formed the foundations of English constitutional law and liberties. This principle eventually led to the system of trial by jury. • This King John is also a part of the Robin Hood legend.

  27. The Crusades • Read 536-537 up until Other Holy Wars. • There were three crusades as depicted in your book. What were the differences between this crusades? • Arab warrior Saladin is the character portrayed in Kingdom of Heaven. • Answer questions 1 and 2 on page 538 in your text.

  28. Life in the high Middle Ages

  29. The Knight • Knights are highly romanticized. • They were according to your text “…little more than mercenary thugs.” (Echoes of the Past, p. 547). • Page 548. Read the Apprenticeship of a Knight •

  30. Life continued • Armour was extremely heavy. Once a knight fell off horseback, success in a fight became difficult. • • Knight vs Samurai • Castles • Page. 551 • What were their customs. Name 3-5.

  31. The Late Middle Ages

  32. The Late Middle Ages • Dark Ages 500-1000 • High Middle Ages 1000-1300 • Late Middle Ages 1300-1500 approx. • Overlaps the Renaissance • Massive population was decimated by the plague • Enormous famine and social upheaval • However, this led to a change in European and surrounding countries dynamic. New cultures, economies, religion, and forms of government

  33. The Late Middle Ages • End of the Crusades and the beginning of the Late Middle Ages

  34. The Black Death – Bubonic Plague • 1315-1317 • Bacteria was believed to be in rats (due to the massive turn of climate and huge flooding with destroyed crops). Fleas would feed on rats and jump host to host. • Eventually lymph nodes would become swollen and black – hence black death. Infected people would die within 3-7 days. • Estimated to have killed up to ½ of Europe’s population. • Textbook p. 566 “Ring around the Rosies…” inspired by Black Death

  35. Bubonic Plague

  36. Effects of the Plague • Social • Extermination of Jews • Less church leaders, yet more church’s being built • Economic • Food prices rose rapidly • Those who survived were better off as there was more inhertiance • 14 yr old King Richard II imposed a poll tax on every person (started the Peasants revolt) • In most places, the manor system fell apart completely. There weren’t enough people left to work in the fields. Those peasants and serfs who had survived the plague found their skills in high demand. Suddenly, they could demand wages for their labor. Once they had money, many fled their manors completely, moving instead to Europe’s growing cities.

  37. Peasants Revolt

  38. The Hundred Years War • One of the countries in which political change occurred was France. In 1328 the king of France died with no sons, and two men claimed his throne. One was French. The other was the king of England. In the end, the French man became king. • This did not sit well with the English king, and a few years later he invaded France. This invasion began a long conflict between England and France that came to be called the Hundred Years’ War. • At first the English armies did well, winning most of the battles. After nearly 100 years of fighting, however, a teenage peasant girl, Joan of Arc, rallied the French troops. Although the English eventually captured and killed Joan, it was too late. The Impact Today The French drove the English from their country in 1453.

  39. Joan of Arc

  40. The Hundred Years War •

  41. Interesting Facts • Johannes Gutenberg developed the ability to print books. Before his invention there was 30 000 books in Europe. Less than 50 years later (1453) there were over 12 million. • Christine de Pisanwas the first writer to make a living. Born in 1364 she wrote The Book of the City of Ladies. • Dracula, according to your text, came from a novel by Bram Stoker who wrote about Vlad III Dracula who was prince of Walachia in present day Romania. He would constantly impale his enemies. While human, he brutally murdered thousands of his enemies.

  42. Review for your Quiz • What to study for: • For the first 5 minutes try to answer the following without any aids: • Timeframe of the High Middle Ages • Difference between Truce of God and Peace of God • How to draw a motte-and-bailey castle. Why was it strategic? • John Lackland, who did he eventually become and what did he have to sign? • Define the East-West schism. • Difference between the 3 major crusades. • Explain how one becomes a knight.