High and Late Middle Ages 1050-1450
Where it begins… • Feudalism is the way of life • Church & Nobles have a great deal of the power • Monarchs will attempt to take power back
Who’s Next • King Edward dies • Harold vs. Duke William • Duke has Pope’s support • Invasion of England
William The Conqueror • Monitors Castles • Allegiance of Vassals • Census- Domesday • Had to follow Customs • Jury System • William vs. Church • Thomas Beckett- Archbishop of Canterbury • Trend?
King John • Son of Henry • Faced Phillip II of France, Pope Innocent III, and his own nobles • Lost to Phillip, Lost Anjou & Normandy • Lost to Pope- excommunicated • Lost to Nobles- Magna Carta
Magna Carta • Rebellious Barons • Affirmed Feudal Rights • Legal rights- People/Church • Due Process & Habeas Corpus • Monarchy must obey law • Council before taxation
Parliament • Evolved from councils • Unified England, How? • House of Nobles & House of Commons • Check’s who?
Successful Monarchy of France • 987- Capetians take throne • Unbroken for 300 years • Effective Bureacracy • Taxes & Law • Gained Middle class backing
Phillip II • Granted Charters • Standing Army • National Tax • Gained English lands in Anjou & Normandy • At time of death, most powerful ruler
Philip IV • Ruthlessly extends royal power • Attempts taxes from clergy • Ignored rules and arrested clergy that did not pay • Clashed with Boniface VIII • Sends troops to seize Pope- dies • Papalcy moved to Avignon France- why?
Louis IX • King & Saint • Justice & Chivalry • 2 Wars against Muslims, persecuted Jews & Heretics • Royal Courts • Officials to check on officials • Outlawed private wars-ends serfdom- significance?
Estates General • Reps from 3 classes- clergy, nobles, townspeople • Difference from Parliament?
Holy Roman Empire • After death what happened? • Duke Otto I - King of Germany • What is Germany? • Central & eastern Europe, parts of France & Italy • Bishops appointed to government • Helps Pope against rebellious nobles • Crowned- HRE • Emperors chose bishops, issue?
Pope vs. HRE • Pope Gregory VII • Wants to separate from secular rulers • Banned Lay Investiture • Emperor Henry IV • Henry is exiled, Forgiven before new HRE • Henry invades Rome, exiles Pope • 1122- Concordat of Worms- Church picks Bishops
Struggle for Italy • Frederick Barbarossa- tried for Northern Italy, defeated by the pope and Lombard League • Fredrick II- Clashed with Popes • HRE- fragmented in feudal states • Southern Italy & Sicily- upheaval • Spain, France, & Pope try to gain influence
Height of Church Power • Innocent III - Claimed Papal Supremacy • Launched Crusade against French that wanted to purify church • Monarchs begin to centralize power, clash over clergy taxation • Phillip- helps get Pope elected, power of papacy declines