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The Late Middle Ages

The Late Middle Ages. England France The Hundred Year War Crusades http :// www.youtube.com/watch?v=bRQXDZDDY-o. Development of England. People Anglo-Saxons: From Demark Settle in England Normans: From Normandy Settle in England Beat the Anglo-Saxons and take over.

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The Late Middle Ages

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  1. The Late Middle Ages England France The Hundred Year War Crusades http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bRQXDZDDY-o

  2. Development of England • People • Anglo-Saxons: • From Demark • Settle in England • Normans: • From Normandy • Settle in England • Beat the Anglo-Saxons and take over

  3. Early Major Kings of England • 1. Edward the Confessor • 2. William the Conqueror • 3. Henry II

  4. Norman Conquest • 1. William the Conqueror is Duke of Normandy • 2. Invades England • 3. William vs. Harold Godwinson (Norman) (Anglo-Saxon) 4. Battle of Hastings

  5. Norman Conquest • 5. Harold Godwinson dies • Arrow to the eye • William wins • 6. William controls England and declares it his personal property

  6. English Kings of Plantagenet Dynasty • Henry II • Richard the Lion Hearted John I the Softsword Edward I

  7. Foundations of English Govt. • Common Law: • Unified body of law from rulings of England’s royal judges that serves as the basis of law • Magna Carta • Document guaranteeing basic political rights in England drawn up by nobles and approved by King John • Parliament: A body of representatives that makes law for a nation

  8. France • Hugh Capet • Duke from Paris France who started the Capetian Dynasty by controlling French trade routes. • CapetianDynasty: • Family line of kings from Hugh Capet that lasted 300 years • They unite France from 47 provinces into one nation

  9. France • Philip Augustus (Philip II) • King of France • Wanted to weaken English power because they stole land from France • Able to weaken England by taking over Normandy which tripled the size of the kingdom • Maintains this by creating a central government with officials who ruled provinces

  10. Hundred Year War Causes Effects • England stealing land from France • Edward III (England) claimed the French throne that started the war • Feelings of Nationalism rose in England and France • Power increased in France • (Won) • England suffered internal turmoil • Why? What land did they lose?

  11. Major Moments • Early English victories • Battle of Crecy, Poitiers, Agnicourt • In these battles the English were completely outnumbered, but made the French flee • Why? • English Longbow (New Weapon) • 6ft tall bow that could launch an arrow up to 200 yards away • The “Machine Gun” of the middle ages

  12. Major Moments • Joan of Arc • French peasant woman who heard “voices” from God to defeat the English • Major victory in the Battle of Orleans • Names Charles VII king of France and reclaims land taken by England • Gets captured by the English • Tried as a witch for hearing “voices” and dies • Charles VII does nothing

  13. The Crusades • Causes • Seljuk Turks invade Jerusalem and kill 3000 Christians • Merchants and Pope wants new trade routes • What do they want? • European noble fighting among themselves • What war again? • Regain Control of the Holy Land • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=10HnXc406lg

  14. The Crusades • Effects • Men gone to fight so women have new roles • Managed estates/manors, shops and inns • Trade expanded from Europe to Southwest Asia • England/Spain to India/China

  15. Effects • Weakened feudalism • Made kings more powerful and weakened power of the Pope • Left a legacy of bitterness and hate between Muslims and Christians • Growth of towns and universities

  16. Important Events of the Crusades • The Crusades: • Byzantine Emperor, Alexius Commenus, needs helps from invading Turks • Pope Urban II • Declares they should help because this is the Holy Land and it is a holy war for Christians

  17. 1st and 2nd Crusade: Jerusalem • 3 armies combine together • Poor leadership • Eventually capture Jerusalem • But destroyed in Muslim counterattack by their leader Saladin

  18. 3rd Crusade • Europe strikes back • 3 armies again • Philip II, Frederick I, Richard the Lion Hearted • Problems • Philip and Richard argue and Philip leaves • Frederick drowns sailing to Jerusalem • Richard is left alone to fight

  19. 3rd Crusade • Eventually Richard and Saladin hold a truce and Richard returns to England, but is killed along the way • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g2m0G1BempI • 4th Crusade • One final attempt to free Jerusalem from Muslim control • But the knights instead raid Constantinople and leave Jerusalem alone

  20. Success from the Crusades • New roles for women • Expanded trade • Growth of European Towns and Universities

  21. Gothic Architecture • Ribbed Vaults • Flying buttresses • Pointed arches • Tall Spires

  22. Central Asia Mongols and Russia

  23. The Mongols • Location: • The Eastern Steppe (plateau) above China • Life: • They were nomadic people that lived in clans • Herded and domesticated animals

  24. Unification • Genghis Khan united the Mongols • Defeated each of his rivals until he was the only one left • Invaded China but went west because the Muslims murdered his tradesmen and ambassador • Invaded Central Asia to defeat the Muslims when his invasions were complete he conquered all of Central Asia • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FEIC0IYZSng

  25. Heirs • After Genghis Khan his empire was split into four parts • Each part was ruled by one of his grandchildren

  26. Pax Mongolia • The empire stretched from China (east) to Russia (west) • Also it stretched from the Himalaya's (south) to the Baltic Sea (north) • Pax Mongolia means Mongol Peace • This peace allowed safe travel for trade caravans, travelers, and missionaries across the empire

  27. Kublai Khan • Grandson of Genghis Khan • He conquered China, Mongolia, Korea, and Tibet • Became the Emperor of China

  28. Loss to Japan • The Mongols tried to invade Japan • It failed because a typhoon (storm) destroyed the invading Mongol fleet • The Japanese called this the “kamikaze” or divine wind because they believed the spirits helped them defeat the Mongols

  29. Mongols rule China • There was complete separation between Mongols and the Chinese • Mongols controlled the highest levels in the government, but gave local power to Chinese officials • However Mongols hired more foreigners than rely on the Chinese because they believed that foreigners would not rebel against them

  30. Marco Polo • European trader who traveled the Silk Road with his father • His father dies when they reach China, but Marco Polo lives on and even serves under Kublai Khan. • His significance is that he brought ideas to Europe and explained new trade routes • One of the new inventions he explains are black stones that burn, which he was referring to coal

  31. Mongols invade Russia • When the Mongols spread west they killed millions and millions of people • Literally fields were covered with dead corpses • Therefore there was “no eye remained to weep”

  32. Mongol requirements • The two major requirements when the Mongols secured their hold on Russia…. • 1. Absolute obedience • 2. Massive tributes (taxes)

  33. Russian rebellion • From the city of Moscow the Russians begin to rebel against the Mongols • The first advantage were the three rivers: Volga, Dnieper, Don • This allowed the Russians to infiltrate deep into the Russian landscape and outmaneuver the Mongols

  34. Ivan III • Ivan III was a rich Russian merchant who used the three rivers to his advantage to acquire much influence • Eventually he challenged the Mongols openly • The armies met, but the Mongols soon realized that they were out matched because Ivan’s influence in Russia • He names himself the Czar or king of Russia

  35. The Church • Originally the Church acted as a mediator between the Mongols and the Russians • However, they changed positions when Ivan III gained power and were messengers to help spread Ivan’s influence to expel the Mongols since he was Christian

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