Verbals and Verbal Phrases ELA8C1f—The student analyzes the structure of a sentence (basic sentence parts).
What is a VERBAL? • A verb acting like another part of speech • 3 types: infinitives, gerunds, and participles
Infinitives • to + a verb • Can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb in a sentence • Examples: • I like to read before I go to sleep. • Most people like to watch comedies on TV. • To succeed in school, you must work hard.
Infinitives vs. Prepositional Phrases • Be aware that the word TO does not always mean you have an infinitive. • If TO is not followed by a verb, it is NOT an infinitive. • I like to shop at the mall. • Let’s go to the mall. • Which sentence contains an infinitive and which sentence contains a prepositional phrase? Why?
Gerunds • A verb acting like a noun • Always ends in –ing • Can be used as subjects, direct objects and indirect objects, objects of prepositions, and predicate nominatives.
Gerunds continued • Examples • Swimming is my favorite sport. • Do you like riding horses? • Many students like playing basketball in PE. • Gerund or not? • The dog, carrying its bone in its mouth, ran around the house. • Carrying is NOT a gerund; not used as a noun • Smiling is an indication that a person is happy. • Smiling is a gerund; it is used as a noun (subject of the the sentence)
Participles • A verb acting like an adjective • Often ends in –ing or –ed but occasionally ends in another way • Examples • Smiling, the teacher collected homework from her students. • I like ice skating on frozen ponds. • Barking dogs can be a nuisance. • The burnt popcorn made the entire house smell.
Participial Phrases • A participial phrase is a participle and all of its objects or modifiers • Examples • Rounding third base, the runner charged toward home plate. • The pitcher, losing control, has overthrown the ball. • Especially pleased, the crowd cheered loudly.
Hints • Participles and participial phrases are almost always near the noun or pronoun they modify. • Participles and participial phrases can usually be taken out of a sentence and the sentence will still make sense. • The skilled catcher trapped the wild pitch in his mitt. • The catcher trapped the wild pitch in his mitt.