Verbals. Participles, Gerunds, and Infinitives . Participles . A present participle is formed by adding –ing to the verb. A past participle is formed by adding –ed to the verb. Sometimes a participle acts as the main verb in a verb phrase.
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Participles, Gerunds, and Infinitives
(present participle as a main verb.)
(present participle as an adjective.)
(past participle as a main verb.)
(past participle as an adjective.
(gerund acts as a subject.)
(gerund acts as a direct object).
(gerund acts as an object of the preposition)
Flying in a storm takes practice. (subject).
Birds learn flying in high winds at a young age.
Many birds owe their survival skills to flying away from enemies. (object of the preposition)
Jenny is always looking for a chance to read. (infinitive)
She goes to the library once a week. (not an infinitive; the word to is used a preposition.
If the infinitive comes after
AV—direct object (noun)
Blank or nothing—subject
If the gerund comes…
After AV—Direct Object
After LV—Predicate Nominative
After Preposition—Object of the Preposition
Before the main verb—Subject