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Top 10 of the Italian Renaissance The greatest paintings, sculptures and buildings Outline Introduction Part I. The Renaissance in Italy Part II. The Most famous paintings Part III. The greatest sculptures Part IV. The most renowned buildings Conclusion References Introduction

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top 10 of the italian renaissance

Top 10 of the Italian Renaissance

The greatest paintings, sculptures and buildings

Dr. Montoneri

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Part I. The Renaissance in Italy
  • Part II. The Most famous paintings
  • Part III. The greatest sculptures
  • Part IV. The most renowned buildings
  • Conclusion
  • References

Dr. Montoneri

introduction
Introduction
  • Sculpture was the first of the fine arts to display Renaissance traits. Donatello was one of the most notable sculptors of the early Renaissance. His statue of David shows a study from the nude
  • Renaissance painting is known for its use of perspective, realism, and movement away from religious themes, which were omnipresent in medieval art. The human body and natural landscapes became the centre of attention
  • Like painting, Renaissance architecture was inspired by the Classical. In Italy, the Renaissance style first started to develop in Florence and developed to its fullest at around 1500 in Rome

Dr. Montoneri

part i the renaissance in italy
Part I. The Renaissance in Italy
  • The Renaissance, “rebirth” that occurred throughout most of Europe. However, the changes that we associate with the Renaissance first occurred in the Italian city of Florence
  • The city's economy and its writers, painters, and architects all made Florence a model of Renaissance culture
  • In 1425 the city had a population of 60,000 and was a self-governed, independent city-state
  • Several of the greatest artists of the age studied or worked in Florence, including Da Vinci, Michelangelo and Botticelli
  • They also worked in the other major cities like Rome, Milan, Sienna and Pisa

Dr. Montoneri

part ii the most famous paintings
Part II. The Most famous paintings
  • During the Renaissance (14-16th centuries), Italian artists produced a huge quantity of masterpieces
  • Artists, scientists, and philosophers believed that the way to greatness and enlightenment was through the study of the Golden Ages of the ancient Greeks and Romans
  • They rejected the more recent medieval past. Instead of this, inspired by Humanism, they looked to the literary and philosophical traditions, and the artistic and engineering achievements, of Greco-Roman antiquity
  • Among the greatest artists of the period, a few masters, such as Michelangelo and Da Vinci, created some of the most celebrated paintingsof the Western world

Dr. Montoneri

1 mona lisa by da vinci
1. Mona Lisa by Da Vinci
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) painted what is considered to be the most famous painting in the word: the portrait of Mona Lisa (1503-1506; Oil on wood; Louvre, Paris)
  • Started on a portrait of his wife Lisa del Giocondo Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) (1503-1506); "Mona" is a contraction of the respectful form of address "Madonna" (Lady)
  • The characteristic Leonardo background of mist and rock gives it a romantic quality, enhanced by the way in which figure and landscape are integrated
  • Leonardo worked on it for four years, decided not to part with it, and took it with him to France in 1516.

Dr. Montoneri

slide7
According to Leonardo’s biographer Giorgio Vasari, the subject was Lady Lisa del Giocondo (Mona being a contraction of Madonna orLady), the wife of Francesco del Giocondo. The painting is also known as La Gioconda. In Italian, Gioconda is the feminine of the family name Giocondo; as an adjective, it means cheerfulwoman.

Dr. Montoneri

2 the last supper by da vinci
2. The Last Supper by Da Vinci
  • Leonardo worked for Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan, for nearly eighteen years (1482-99). The original fresco (1485-98) is on a wall of the refectory (dining hall) in the Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan
  • The evening before Christ was betrayed by one of his disciples, he gathered them together to eat, tell them he knew what was coming and wash their feet
  • The Last Supper depicts the next few seconds in this story after Christ says that one disciple would betray him before sunrise, and all twelve have reacted to the news with different degrees of horror, anger and shock

Dr. Montoneri

3 sistine chapel ceiling by michelangelo
3. Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo
  • In 1504, Michelangelo (1475-1564) was summoned to Rome, where he began a turbulent nine-year association with pope Julius II
  • In 1508 Julius asked him to paint a series of apostles on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
  • In 1512, this vast, heroic work was shown to the world (some 520 square meters), which hailed "the divine Michelangelo" as the master of masters
  • The Creation of Adam is one of the culminating scenes at the altar end of the chapel. God's touch pours life into a still-languid Adam; Eve, already potentially in existence, lies beneath the Creator's arm.

Dr. Montoneri

4 birth of venus by botticelli
4. Birth of Venus by Botticelli
  • Botticelli (1444/5-1510) famous for mythological paintings like Primavera and The Birth of Venus, where the pagan story is taken with reverent seriousness and Venus is the Virgin Mary
  • Legend that Venus, the goddess of Love, born from the foam of the sea. Here she is carried to the shore on a shell, blown forward by figures representing the wind; an attendant waits to drape a cloak over her. The Birth of Venus was the first Renaissance painting based on classical mythology but its atmosphere hardhly seems pagan or sensual
  • Commissioned by the Medici, who favoured a philosophy, Neoplatonism, that was designed to reconcile classical and Christian ideas, interpreting the gods of the ancient Greece and Rome as mystical or symbolic beings
  • So Botticelli's Venus probably symbolizes love and beauty in its widest, most spiritual sense

Dr. Montoneri

5 the school of athens by raphael
5. The School of Athens by Raphael
  • In 1509, Raphael was employed to decorate the new apartments being prepared for Pope Julius II in the Vatican
  • In the very first room, the Stanza della Segnatura, Raphael painted a set of frescos representing the four branches of Renaissance learning-literature, philosophy, jurisprudence and theology
  • He brought these abstract subjects to life by creating pseudo-historical scenes filled with imaginary portraits of Renaissance culture-heroes. The School of Athens, Plato and Aristotle appear at the top of a set of steps, surrounded by the famous thinkers of antiquity
  • All of the figures represent specific people, divided into two camps- speculative thinkers on the left with Plato, and fact-seekers on the right supporting Aristotle. Plato is said to be a portrait of Leonardo, while Heraclitus (glumly seated) is a tribute to Michelangelo.

Dr. Montoneri

part iii the greatest sculptures
Part III. The greatest sculptures
  • Donatello was the greatest sculptor of the early Renaissance; his works demonstrate that he was not only a master stonecutter, but also possessed a profound understanding of human psychology
  • The towering genius in sculpture, not only during the 16th century in Italy but perhaps of all time, is Michelangelo. His mastery manifested itself early, for he was only in his 20s when he carved the Pietà (1497-1500, Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome) and the heroic David, the first monumental sculptures of the High Renaissance

Dr. Montoneri

6 david by donatello
6. David by Donatello
  • Donatello (1386-1466) is considered one of the greatest sculptors ever; statue of David in 1430
  • David was a revolutionary work both technically and culturally. The first large, free-standing nude since antiquity, it implicitly contradicted the medieval conviction that nakedness was a cause for shame
  • It depicts the young David with an enigmatic smile, posed with his foot on Goliath's severed head just after killing the giant
  • Although the subject is the biblical slayer of Goliath (whose head lies at David’s feet), Donatello makes him more like a Greek god than a Hebrew shepherd

Dr. Montoneri

7 piet by michelangelo
7. Pietà by Michelangelo
  • The Pietà by Michelangelo is a marble sculpture in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome
  • The statue was commissioned by the French cardinal DeBillheres, who was a representative in Rome
  • This famous work of art depicts the dead body of Jesus in the arms of his mother Mary, after his crucifixion
  • A few days after being placed in St. Peter's, Michelangelo overheard someone remark that the work was done by Christoforo Solari. In a rage, Michelangelo carved "Michel Angelus Bonarotus Florent Facibat" (Michelangelo Buonarroti, Florentine, made this) on the sash running across Mary's breast. He later regretted his outburst of pride and swore to never sign another work of his hands

Dr. Montoneri

8 david by michelangelo
8. David by Michelangelo
  • Michelangelo's David, finished by Michelangelo Buonarroti in 1504 (started in 1501) is widely considered to be a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture
  • David portrays the Biblical David at the moment that he decides to engage Goliath. This 5.17 meter (17') marble statue was commissioned as a symbol of the Florentine Republic
  • The statue is post-classical in its psychological tension and sense of imminent violence, as the young man stands ready for action with his sling over his shoulder
  • The technique used is called Contrapposto (illustrates the natural counterbalance of the body through the bending of the hips and legs )

Dr. Montoneri

part iv the most renowned buildings
Part IV. The most renowned buildings
  • Florence, like many cities of the Renaissance, had numerous churches, public buildings, and houses constructed with Romanesque or Gothic architecture
  • Italian Gothic tended to pursue the development of its own architectural traditions rather than adopting French models
  • The West fronts of the churches remained simple walls terminating in the nave; the bell tower was always built beside them
  • The Italians preferred wide, clearly defined spaces; the dome, classified as Renaissance, acts as a crown on the spatial achievement of the entire building

Dr. Montoneri

9 saint peter s basilica in rome
9. Saint Peter’s basilica in Rome
  • This building is often described as the largest church ever built (it covers an area of 23,000 m² and has a capacity of over 60,000) and one of the holiest sites
  • Construction: 1546 to 1564 and 1590; architect: Giacomo della Porta; Michelangelo designed the dome (1546); colonnades and square by Bernini
  • Tradition says it was built at the place where St. Peter, one of the apostles of Jesus and considered the first pope, was crucified or buried. The church, it is said, hosts the tomb of St. Peter under the main altar

Dr. Montoneri

10 florence cathedral
10. Florence cathedral
  • Santa Maria del Fiore (Saint Mary of the Flower) refers to the lily, symbol of Florence
  • The cathedral complex includes the Duomo, the baptistery and the campanile (bell tower)
  • Ca. 1294-1467; architect: Arnolfo di Cambio
  • The cathedral also known as il Duomo: the dome by Brunelleschi (1418-36): 45 meters in diameter and 114 meters in height
  • Considered as a technical masterpiece and marks the beginning of a new era in architectural history

Dr. Montoneri

conclusion
Conclusion
  • The two principal components of Renaissance style are a revival of the classical forms originally developed by the ancient Greeks and Romans, and an intensified concern with secular life—interest in humanism and assertion of the importance of the individual
  • During the Renaissance, artists were no longer regarded as mere artisans, as they had been in the medieval past, but for the first time emerged as independent personalities, comparable to poets and writers
  • The Renaissance first developed in Italy where the greatest artists produced the most celebrated works of the West

Dr. Montoneri

references
References
  • The Art of the Renaissance, Nathaniel Harris, Parragon Book Service, printed in Italy, 1995.
  • http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13369b.htm
  • http://www.wdbydana.com/vatican.htm
  • http://en.wikipedia.org
  • http://www.abcgallery.com
  • http://encarta.msn.com
  • http://arthistory.about.com/cs/leonardo/a/last_supper.htm

Dr. Montoneri